The study showed that the spatial interpolation of negative air

The study showed that the spatial interpolation of negative air ions could reveal the concentration levels in different types of vegetation, different types of forest coverage areas and different regions. In Maiji, the concentration of negative air ions can be sorted in descending order as in the natural forests, the economic forests, the greenbelt and the farmlands. The average concentration of negative air ions in natural forests is more than double compared to other vegetation types. The main types of natural forest are coniferous forests and broad-leaved forests; economic forests are mainly broad-leaved forests; the greenbelt is made up of broad-leaved forests and lawns; farmlands mainly consist of Nanaomycin A plants. The results were consistent with Wu et al. (2001), Wang (2003) and Li et al. (2013) in that the concentration of negative air ions in coniferous forests was higher than in broad-leaved forests. The lowest concentration of negative air ions was in the Daobei region and in a small part of the town of Shetang, and the highest concentration was in Maiji and Ganquan. The reason is that the main vegetation in the Daobei region and in Shetang is farmland, and the main vegetation in Maiji and Ganquan is natural forests and economic forests including manifold plants (Meng and Zhang, 2005). The concentration of air ions was less than 1000unitcm−3 in Shetang and Daobei because they are industrial zones where the population density is higher than in others. Air quality there is seriously influenced by the pollution caused by traffic and industrial production. Li et al. (2013) found that a lack of vegetation, a high population density, factories, and traffic can lead to severe pollution, which reduces the concentration of negative air ions. Therefore, it is crucial to consider a combination of coniferous forests, broad-leaved forests, and lawns during the planning and construction of urban vegetated areas. The aim is to increase the concentration of negative air ions and improve the air quality in cities by increasing the plant types and forest coverage areas (Wu et al., 2003; Meng and Zhang, 2005; Prudchenko, 2014).
This study found that the negative air ions’ spatial autocorrelation was significant and the biggest impact distance was 262.92m. This result was similar to the research performed by Cai et al. (2007), Li et al. (2013) and Prudchenko (2014). They found that the concentrations of negative air ions in forests, forest edges and near dynamic water were much higher than in other areas, and the concentrations in open areas were much lower than in vegetated areas. The explanation may be that a great deal of negative air ions are generated through the point discharge and the photoelectric effect process during photosynthesis among canopies, branches and leaves (Huang et al., 2004) and dynamic water (Prudchenko, 2014), which have impact ranges based on the theory of negative air ions’ spatial autocorrelation. The concentration of negative air ions was higher than 2000unitcm3 in Maiji, Ganquan and Mapaoquan because these regions are close to forests, and the spatial autocorrelation is very strong in the impact range. By contrast, the concentration of negative air ions was lower than 1000unitcm−3 in Daobei and Shetang because the distance between the two regions is beyond the biggest impact ranges of negative air ions, and the spatial autocorrelation is very weak there. The concentration of negative air ions was 5000unitcm−3 in natural forests and at forest edges, which proves that forests are natural negative air ion generators. In conclusion, spatial autocorrelation and semi-variogram theory can be applied to the design of the size and location of a vegetated area. Combined with green roof technology to design a natural negative air ion generator among even the closest residents, we can increase the negative air ion concentration both indoors and outdoors and improve ambient air quality (Getter and Rowe, 2006).

Looking at this issue is important because the

Looking at this issue is important because the frequent repetition and increased severity of events can either undermine (e.g. physically damage infrastructure) or increase (e.g. through social learning) residents\’ capacity to react. Moreover the impacts of heatwaves are not equally distributed through urban areas and social or ethnic groups, which calls for greater policy and planning interventions to address climate-induced environmental inequities and injustice. Neighbourhoods with a higher proportion of lower-income residents and immigrants are less prepared for heatwaves and are more likely to suffer from them (Harlan et al., 2007). Lower socioeconomic and ethnic minority groups are more likely to live in warmer neighbourhoods with greater exposure to heat stress (Uejio et al., 2011) as also corroborated by the extensive literature on the filipin urban heat island (UHI) effect (Jenerette et al., 2011). Their vulnerability is further exacerbated by the fewer social and material resources to cope with extreme heat (Harlan et al., 2006). Thus, climate change is not expected to only impact those communities more severely, but can further aggravate existing issues of social inequalities and poverty (Hoornweg, 2011), and in return further strain existing municipal services and infrastructure. Working with a definition of filipin ‘as local or community-based adjustments to deal with changing conditions within the constraints of broader economic and social–political arrangements’ (Smit and Wandel, 2006, p. 289), we investigate adaptation to extreme heat and more frequent heatwaves at the neighbourhood scale and seek to understand how the experience of both state adaptation initiatives as well as more frequent and intense events influence the adaptive capacity of residents. We also examine which institutional and community elements are crucial for shaping people\’s ability to respond and adapt to increasing occurrences of these events, hence conceptualising those elements as ‘drivers’ of adaptive capacity. Our research focuses on Australia, a country already experiencing a higher frequency of climate change-related extreme heat events and resulting bushfires (Karoly et al., 2013), and more specifically on a heat-sensitive low-income community in Sydney, where doubling in warm/hot days is expected by 2030 (Saman et al., 2013, p.22).
We begin with an overview of the literature in two major areas relevant to our study: the emerging field of capacity to cope and adapt to climate change in cities and the well-developed extreme heat vulnerability and adaptation field. Section 3 presents the study methodology as well as data sources used in this research. Our case findings on coping and adaptation actions as well as social and institutional drivers of adaptive capacity are presented in Section 4. The paper proceeds with a discussion of the dynamics and drivers of adaptive capacity and their policy implications in Section 5, before concluding with some final remarks.

Adaptive capacity of urban communities and community vulnerability to heatwaves
The concept of adaptive capacity has its origins in frameworks that examine vulnerability to climate change (Adger, 2006; Engle, 2011; Füssel and Klein, 2006; Smit and Wandel, 2006). Despite the existence of different definitions and approaches used in the study (Füssel, 2007; O\’Brien et al., 2007; Preston and Stafford-Smith, 2009) and measurement (Hinkel, 2011) of vulnerability, overall the concept includes three key elements: a system\’s exposure to climate hazard; sensitivity, understood as the extent to which a system or population can absorb impacts; and, the capacity to cope with and adapt to climate hazard (Fig. 1).
To date, most studies related to adaptive capacity have mainly focused on characterising and specifying this capacity (Engle, 2011). Adaptive capacity involves ‘the ability or potential of a system to respond successfully to climate variability and change, and includes adjustments in both behaviour and in resources and technologies’ (Adger et al., 2007, p. 727). The term includes capacity to both cope with and adapt to climate change. The climate change adaptation literature makes a clear distinction between coping actions, i.e. ‘the adjustments people make to deal with existing weather extremes’, and adaptation, i.e. ‘the long-term or fundamental changes people make to systematically reduce potential harm or take advantage of opportunities from changing weather extremes’ (Morss et al., 2011, p.2). Nevertheless, in the most recent literature on adaptive capacity, the term seems to encompass both coping responses and adapting (Eakin et al., 2014; Wamsler and Brink, 2014).

Liposomes enclosed phospholipid bilayer structures are proposed as

Liposomes (enclosed phospholipid bilayer structures) are proposed as drug carrier systems to deliver many drugs, including anti-cancer, anti-fungal and antibiotic drugs (Allen and Cullis 2013). They have been used to improve the therapeutic efficiency of drugs by enhancing drug accumulation, prolonging biological half-life or reducing toxicity. For example, Doxil is an anti-cancer liposomal drug with a diameter of 80–100 nm that showed enhanced therapeutic effect on extracranial cancers, such as breast and ovarian cancers, over free doxorubicin (Barenholz 2012; Gabizon et al. 1994; Symon et al. 1999). However, liposomal drugs are impeded by the BBB because they are usually too large to cross (Allen and Cullis 2013; Pardridge 2005). Although many studies demonstrated that large molecules could be delivered to the TASIN-1 by ultrasound with microbubbles, the delivery of intact liposomes, especially those larger than 50 nm, across the BBB opened by ultrasound combined with microbubbles remains uninvestigated. Specifically, the discrepancies among liposomes with different sizes moving across the BBB using this method are unknown.

Materials and Methods


A growing number of animal studies showed that imaging or therapeutic agents larger than the BBB\’s exclusion threshold of 400 Da could be successfully delivered by FUS with microbubbles (Alonso et al. 2013; Choi et al. 2007; Choi et al. 2010a; Hynynen et al. 2001; Kinoshita et al. 2006; Marquet et al. 2014; Shen et al. 2014). Several studies demonstrated that the molecular weight of agents is an important factor to the delivery outcome using this method (Chen and Konofagou 2014; Choi et al. 2010b). However, the influence of the size of particles has rarely been studied. Based on the fact that liposomes are an important drug delivery system with controllable sizes (Allen and Cullis 2013), stabilized long-circulating PEG liposomes with three different diameters (55 nm, 120 nm and 200 nm) were delivered to mice brains by FUS with microbubbles in the present study. It was found that 55-nm liposomes could be delivered at higher success rates with larger extravasation areas than 120-nm or 200-nm liposomes. The discrepancy among deliveries of these three sets of liposomes suggests that it may be more difficult for larger liposomes (diameters >120 nm) to penetrate into brain parenchyma from BBB disruption sites induced by FUS with microbubbles. There have been two studies using other agents with a comparable size of 55 nm that were delivered to normal animals (Chen and Konofagou 2014; Marty et al. 2012). Using dextrans with different molecular weights, it was found that 2000-kDa dextrans (DH: ∼54 nm) could not be delivered to mice brains until the acoustic pressure was raised to 0.84 MPa (Chen and Konofagou 2014). In their experiment, Definity microbubbles (1.1–3.3 μm, Lantheus Medical Imaging, Billerica, Massachusetts​) were used at a dose of 0.05 μL/g. In another experiment performed on Sprague Dawley rats, it was found that a super-paramagnetic MR contrast agent with a hydrodynamic diameter 65 nm could penetrate across the BBB at 0.45 MPa in situ using SonoVue microbubbles (2–6 μm; 2 μL/g) (Marty et al. 2012).
Previous studies showed that the magnitude of BBB disruption increased as acoustic pressure amplitude increased, but vascular damage would be induced at high pressures (Chopra et al. 2010; McDannold et al. 2008). BBB disruption is more likely related to inertial cavitation when increasing acoustic pressure above 0.51 MPa (Chen and Konofagou 2014). Since acoustic pressures used in this study were above 0.51 MPa, the delivery of liposomes may probably be associated with inertial cavitation effects. Noticeably, increasing acoustic pressure could enhance delivery of liposomes. Meanwhile, red blood cell extravasation occurred by histologic examination, although there was no obvious neuron damage when increasing peak rarefactional pressure or microbubble dosage alone. Moreover, hemorrhages and neuron damage were induced when increasing peak rarefactional pressure and microbubble dosage simultaneously. This may be due to the vascular wall structure or tight junction disruption due to inertial cavitation enhancement.

angiotensin ii receptor blockers Kulicke et al described the possible

Kulicke et al. [7] described the possible mechanisms of ultrasonic degradation. It appears that the chain scission, due to elongational flow fields between collapsing cavitation bubbles, always occurs close to the center of gravity of the molecule. That is why no monomer is formed and no side reactions occur during ultrasonic degradation [7]. This study aims to investigate the molecular weight degradation kinetics and distribution change of SPG under various ultrasonic treatments parameters. Ethanol fractional precipitation technology was used to gain the fractions with different molecular weight. The rheological properties of USPG samples and fractions were further determined to provide theoretical basis for the ultrasonic degradation of SPG.

Materials and methods

Results and discussions

In conclusion, the molecular weight degradation and rheological behaviors of SPG produced with solid-state angiotensin ii receptor blockers under various ultrasonic treatments were evaluated in this study. Ultrasonic treatments had great degradation effect on the molecular weight of SPG. Higher ultrasonic intensity and longer treatment time could obtain the SPG sample with lower molecular weight. The Mw of ultrasonic-treated SPG decreased from 2404kDa to 389kDa at 796W/cm2 for 30min. A majority of high molecular weight fragments (106–107Da) of SPG decreased into low molecular weight fragment (104–105Da) after ultrasonic treatment. Ultrasonic-treated SPG had more narrow distribution of molecular weight, and the percentage of 104–105Da division was about 70%. Kinetics model used in Malhotra’s report described greatly the degradation processing of SPG under ultrasonic treatment in this study.
Ultrasonic-treated SPG (USPG, 796W/cm2 for 10min) was separated and purified by alcohol fractional precipitation technology. USPG40%, USPG60%, USPG80% were used as names for final alcohol concentration fractions 0–40%, 40–60% and 60–80%, respectively. Untreated and ultrasonic-treated SPG samples exhibited pseudoplastic flow behavior and near-Newtonian flow behavior over the same frequency range, respectively. Higher viscosity of SPG was gained at bigger Mw. USPG40% and USPG60% samples had typical viscoelastic behaviors while USPG80% exhibited viscous responses over the entire accessible frequency range. The crossover frequency between viscous and elastic behavior of the ultrasonic-treated USPG samples reduced with the Mw of polysaccharides decreasing. Therefore, ultrasonic treatment is a viable modification technology for SPG and other polymer materials with high molecular weight.

We gratefully acknowledge the financial support received by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Project No. 31201312).

Trend to incorporate different bioactive compounds into food formulations in order to develop functional foods and nutraceuticals has increased remarkably in the last few years. Application of nanotechnology has facilitated to overcome the challenges and technical hurdles related to the solubility, stability and delivery of food bioactives. In the recent years, researchers have successfully fabricated variety of nano-entities, i.e., nanoparticles, nanocapsules, microemulsions and nanoemulsions by employing different techniques and material [1]. Oil in water (O/W) nanoemulsions have been found promising for the enhanced solubility and bioavailability of lipophilic bioactives [2–4]. Preparation techniques and fabrication material govern the final characteristics, quality and application of the prepared nanoemulsion. In most cases, high-energy emulsification methods, that is, high pressure homogenization, microfluidization and low frequency (∼20kHz) ultrasonication are preferred for this purpose. Ultrasonic homogenization has received increased attention in the last few years due to its improved image as a “green technology” because of high efficiency, economic performance and low instrumental requirements [5–10]. The process of growth and collapse of micro bubbles (cavitation) in the liquid medium due to high-intensity ultrasound is responsible for the production of microjets and turbulence [5,11]. These intense shear forces induce disruption at the interface of immiscible phases, thereby, facilitating the production of fine and stable emulsions in the presence of surfactants [12]. It is well established that, in addition to the nano-droplets formation, sonication may also initiate the polymerization and depolymerization reactions when a polymer solution is exposed to sonication [13]. A wide range of nanomaterials with a uniform particle size and reduced aggregation have been synthesized through the emulsion polymerization approach [5–7,10]. When nanoemulsion droplets are used as a template (core material) to prepare the polymer coated nanocapsules, it is very critical to determine the optimum concentration of polymer solution and its uniform distribution on the surface to avoid droplet aggregation [14]. Nevertheless, some aggregation is expected and should be overcome by mechanical means without disturbing the shell assembly of a capsule.

br Acknowledgments The authors acknowledges the support

The authors acknowledges the support of the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR), under grant SONONUCLICE (ANR-09-BLAN-0040-02) “Ice nucleation control by ultrasounds for freezing and freeze-drying processes optimization”. The authors thank an anonymous referee for suggesting the comparison with the problem of the collapse near a plane boundary (especially Ref. [40]), and another for motivating the discussion in Appendix A.

In 21st century, nanochemistry is one of the most active research fields in chemistry because it embraces a number of fields like catalysis [1,2], magnetic [3,4], optical [5,6], biology [7], medicinal chemistry [8] etc. The TH-302 cost of the field is reflected by increased number of research papers, review articles and monographs published every year. In literature, numbers of reports are available on nano-sized coordination polymers [9–13] and they have outstanding properties like magnetic [14], sorption-desorption [15], epoxy resin [16] and precursors [11]. The coordination complexes, which were known for more than 100years and play various important roles (like development of inorganic chemistry [17], medicinal [18–20], isomerisation [21,22], catalyst [23–26], biology [27,28], optical [29–32], electrical [33] etc.) but regarding the synthesis of their nanoparticles have sporadic reports [34–36]. Although number of coordination complexes were used as catalysts and precursors for the synthesis of others nanoparticles [37]. Therefore, we have undertaken an extensive research programme to explore the synthesis of nanoparticles of Cobalt (III) coordination complexes (specially cobalt ammines) using ultrasound irradiations which leads to a significant reduction of synthetic time. These cobalt(III) complexes are renowned due to their high stability, long shelf life, use of aqueous solvent, large number of N–H donor groups, high positive charge (i.e., 3+) and potential applications [38]. This article reports the sonochemical synthesis and characterization of nano-sized cobalt(III) complexes, [Co(NH3)6]Cl3·2H2O (A), [Co(en)3]Cl3·3H2O (B) and [Co(dien)2]Cl3·3.5H2O (C) along with antimicrobial activity and textile dyeing behavior.


Result and discussion

It is concluded that nano-sized cobalt(III) coordination complexes, [Co(NH3)6]Cl3·2H2O (A), [Co(en)3]Cl3·3H2O (B) and [Co(dien)2]Cl3·3.5H2O (C) can be synthesized using ultrasonic irradiations. In addition to that, there is a significant time reduction for their preparations particularly in case of B and C as compared to their respective bulks. All these nano-sized particles are thermally less stable. Moreover, complex A, B and C are antifungal (against B. subtilis) and antibacterial (against A. alternata). The dyeing behavior of all nano-sized cobalt(III) coordination complexes (and their respective bulks obtained) in terms of shade output as well as fastness properties are rationalized. The results of effective antimicrobial activity and good fastness properties of nano sized coordination complexes show that these materials may find potential application in the field of future medical textile.

We thank the University Grants Commission (UGC), New Delhi, India for their financial support under scheme “University with Potential for Excellence (UPE)” (F. No. 14-2/2012(NS/PE) dated 13.07.2012).

Potassium is an essential ingredient in the fertilizers used to supply food and feed for mankind and animals. At present, the global production of potash fertilizer is primarily based on soluble potassium resources. While the soluble potassium resources are rare (<1% of world potassium storage) in China, the storage of insoluble potash ores, such as K-feldspar (KAlSi3O8), amounts to more than 10 billion tons [1]. Therefore, the economical and effective extraction of potassium from the insoluble potassium deposit, especially K-feldspar has attracted many researchers’ attention in China [2].

br Materials and methods PVA with molecular weight g mol

Materials and methods
PVA with molecular weight 145,000g.mol−1 and ATS were supplied from the Merck Chemical Co. (Germany). Calcium carbonate nano-powder (particle size of 20–60nm) was applied from Iranian Nanomaterials Pioneers Company (Mashhad, Iran) with high purity. Cupper (II) nitrate was purchased from Cica-Reagent (Tokyo, Japan). Deionized water was used throughout the experiments.

Results and discussions
By mixing the silane solutions with CaCO3 NPs, the reactive silanol sites, due to high affinity for each other, form –Si–O–Si– bonds. On the other hand, hydrogen bonds are developed between the –OH sites of NPs and alkoxy groups of silane, which can be changed into the covalent bonds of –Si–O–Ca– linkages at influence of temperature and pressure provided under ultrasonic irradiation. Therefore, the silanols of ATS form a monolayer on the NP surface. Later on, CaCO3-ATS NPs are added to PVA solution. ATS coated on the surface of NPs displayed favorable adsorption toward the PVA chains, through forming strong intermolecular hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces between the ATS amino groups and the PVA hydroxyl groups. During ultrasonic irradiation, potential DMH-1 of ultrasonic cavitation babbles is changed into the kinetic energy which generates a strong impact of the micro jet. In effect of collapsing and/or hitting of jets with surface of sample, high temperature and high pressure can be rapidly and locally generated. This condition, not only breaks the interaction among particles and well controls agglomeration them into polymer matrix, but also provides the heat energy of reaction requirement, and increases the collision frequency of modified CaCO3 and PVA chains. Therefore, the intramolecular hydrogen bonds between PVA and nanoparticles might be destroyed and the new intermolecular hydrogen bonds can form between the hydroxyl groups and amino groups of PVA and modified nanoparticles, respectively.

In summary, the modified CC-ATS NPs and PVA/CC-ATS NPs were prepared via ultrasonic method as a low cost green method and employed to assess the influence of insertion of CC-ATS NPs on the barrier properties and uptake heavy metal ions of PVA. Structure of prepared samples and dispersity of NPs were surveyed by FT-IR, XRD, FE-SEM and TEM analyses. Thermal stability and mechanical properties of NCs improved (specific in 5wt% NC) as compared to pure PVA, which is due to good miscibility and dispersion of constituent materials, as well as the hydrogen bond interactions between hydroxyl groups of PVA and active groups of CC-ATS. The OP of NC 5wt% was reduced about 25.44% than the pristine PVA. Adsorption capacity of PVA/CC-ATS NC was investigated for removal of Cu(II) about 45.45mg.g−1 in pH=6.5 and room temperature. According to results, the pseudo second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model exhibited well fitness with the analytical data achieved from isotherm and kinetic studies.

Support for this study the Research Affairs Division of Isfahan University of Technology (IUT), Iran, National Elite Foundation (NEF), Iran Nanotechnology Initiative Council (INIC), and Center of Excellence in Sensors and Green Chemistry Research (IUT) through grants is gratefully acknowledged.

Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) are effective alternatives to decompose organic contaminants into more biodegradable compounds or even until their complete mineralization [1,2]. One of these treatments, the Fenton process, is a viable technique applied to the treatment of wastewaters from several industrial sectors [3,4]. One of the main drawbacks of this treatment derives from the requirement of high concentrations of dissolved iron salts, which exceed the regulations specified in the EU Water Framework Directives (Directive 2000/60/EC). This limitation obliges to incorporate additional treatments after the standard Fenton process, in order to eliminate and/or recover the iron salts. These practices fundamentally consist of physical and chemical processes of coagulation and flocculation that, accordingly, generate large amounts of ferric sludges that also need a treatment [5,6].

br Conclusions br Acknowledgements This work


This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) under Grant No. 51075325, the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University (NCET-09-0644) of Ministry of Education of China and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities.

USM [1–3] is a functional actuator, which makes the stator vibrating within the ultrasonic frequency domain, actualizing the revolving/linear movement and the torque/force through the friction between stator and rotor by the converse piezoelectric effect of the piezoelectric ceramic material. It is characterized with high power density, compact structure, no electromagnetic interference, good controllability of the output performance, high control accuracy, easy to direct drive, etc. Therefore, it can realize to drive without transmission system, and has been successfully applied in optical autofocus system, precise positioning table, light path controller, instrumentation, medical equipment and other applications.
The USM proposed in recent years usually utilizes the piezoelectric ceramics ring (PZT ring) vibrating to form the actuating ability. The common pattern of divisional polarization [4–8] is shown as Fig. 1, (a) is two-phase divisional polarization and (b) is equally divisional polarization. No ret proto oncogene which polarization pattern of the PZT ring utilized, the manufacturing process of the PZT ring is complex and leading lower yields. In order to enlarge the circumferential vibration amplitude of the points on stator surface, many evenly distributed teeth need to be machined on the metal substrate of stator [1–3,9–13]. Moreover, when gluing the PZT ring on substrate surface which opposites to the teeth side, the division boundaries on the PZT ring surface shall be aligned with the tooth slots [2]. These increase lots of the manufacture difficulty.

Design principle of the sandwich structure USM
The structure diagram of sandwich structure USM is shown in Fig. 2. It is mainly composed of a pre-tightening nut (1), two pieces of rotor disc (2), stator (3) and shaft (4). Adjusting the nut position along the shaft can change the pressure provided by the disk-spring (9) which glued on the hollow rotor disc. Meanwhile, ensuring the two rotor discs are clamped reliably on the stator. The stator is semen made of a double-sided PCB with three layers (Sine signal layer, Cosine signal layer, and Ground signal layer) and many PZT components (5). There are a ring (7) in the center of PCB and three legs (8) connecting the ring with the board. And there are many electrodes uniformly distributed on both sides of the ring and divided into three groups to supply sine, cosine and ground signals for PZT component respectively. The two opposite electrodes are connected via through hole. Many PZT components are uniformly bonded between two electrodes firstly and soldering tin (6) filled on electrode. Then PZT components are welded on PCB by reflow soldering. The PZT components and the soldering tin become a raised ring on the PCB ring (7), as scale-up view B shown in Fig. 3. Finally, rub the gibbous soldering tin down to the position of the PZT surface makes sure the raised ring surface contacts the rotor disc evenly.

Experiment on USM
The experimental prototype is manufactured according to the above method, shown in Fig. 6. The double-side PCB is first manufactured, as shown in Fig. 6(a); PZT components (size: 1mm×1mm×0.5mm, polarize plane size: 1mm×0.5mm) is bonded on PCB with epoxy glue according to the arrangement principle as shown in Fig. 6(b); the gap between each two PZT components is filled with soldering tin, and then welding PZT components onto PCB. There must be some gibbous welding points need to be rubbed down to the plane of PZT component surface. The stator manufacture is completed, as shown in Fig. 6(c). A stainless steel disk spring is glued onto the hollow rotor disc; assembling the two rotors to clamp the stator, rotating the nut can adjust the clamping force applied to the stator, as shown in figure (d).

SAG supplier This study disregards the contribution

This study disregards the contribution of nonlinear wave generation in the fluid medium. Typically, second-order (or higher-order) corrections [43] to the total pressure field are required to evaluate the nonlinear scattering by the object [44], which create “nonlinear” contributions to the cross-sections. Since the second-order pressure field is written in terms of the first-order (linear) field [43], the linear scattering could be used to estimate the second-order contributions to the scattering.
It is also instructive to mention here that previous analyses have demonstrated the connection between the axial radiation force (i.e. acting along the direction of wave propagation) with the scattering cross section for the case of plane waves on a rigid sphere (see Section 5 in [45]), both the scattering and SAG supplier cross sections for the case of plane progressive waves [46,47], both the scattering and extinction cross sections for plane waves on an object with arbitrary oscillating surface [48], and for Bessel-vortex beams [49] centered on a sphere. Note that an implicit connection between the radiation force function and the scattering efficiency factor has been established for plane waves incident upon a non-absorbing cylinder (see Eq. (18) in [50]). For plane waves incident upon a cylinder, a far-field scattering form function can be derived from Eq. (4) such that . Consequently, the expression for the farfield form function becomes,
Without loss of generality and following the procedure described in [45], the axial radiation force function (i.e., along the direction of wave propagation) for a lossless cylinder insonified by plane progressive waves in a non-viscous fluid, is therefore expressed as,where , and the factor , gives the projection along the direction of wave propagation of momentum transport associated with the scattering field [49]. Note that Eq. (30) is equivalent to Eq. (18) in [50]. Nevertheless, as in the case of an arbitrarily-shaped object in spherical coordinates [26], no simplified expressions describing the direct connection of the radiation force components with the efficiency factors may be attained.
Finally, the analysis can be extended to optical and quantum beams in the framework of the scalar diffraction theory, and the derivations for the generalized extended optical (or extinction) theorem presented here in cylindrical coordinates, should help along that line of research, as well as in the study of the arbitrary scattering of electromagnetic beams by arbitrary-shape objects [51].

The multiple scattering is the scattering of waves by a large number of inhomogeneities embedded in a matrix [1], which happens in all kinds of waves including elastic; acoustic and electromagnetic waves. In this work, the attention is only confined to elastic waves although the treatment is also applicable to other waves. As we know, for random composite materials with uniformly randomly distributed inclusions/voids, the total wave field is sample-dependent. Hence, it is difficult to establish a relationship between the wave field with a specific configuration and the macroscopic properties of the random composite material. The work of Foldy [2] in 1945 shows the ensemble averaged wave field, which is usually called the coherent wave, satisfying a simple wave equation in an effective medium. A difference from the elastic wave in a homogeneous medium is the wave-number of the coherent wave is a complex value. Its real part means the wave speed of the coherent wave in the effective medium and the imaginary part represents the attenuation caused by scattering if all the materials are perfectly elastic. Both the real and imaginary parts are functions of composite materials’ macroscopic properties including the material properties of the matrix and inclusions; volume fraction of inclusions and interface between the matrix and inclusions, etc. Therefore, during the past several decades, extensive theoretical works [1–7] have been devoted to evaluate these two parameters: wave speed and attenuation coefficient of the coherent waves in random composite/porous materials. Generally, these theoretical works can be classified into two groups. The first group is methods [1,3,8,9] based on the wave function expansion [3] and configurational averaging technique [2]. In these methods, the exciting and scattered wave of each inclusion in composite materials is expressed as a series of wave functions. The expansion coefficients of the scattered waves for each inclusion may be related to the expansion coefficients of the exciting wave through a matrix , whose components are determined by the boundary conditions of the corresponding single scattering problem [10]. So these methods are usually also called the matrix methods. After a sequence of complicated mathematical operations, a homogeneous system about the ensemble averaged expansion coefficients of the exciting waves or scattered waves for the ith inclusion can be obtained. It is necessary to be noted that, in order to obtain this homogeneous system, an approximation known as the “quasi-crystalline approximation” [3] has been usually adopted to truncate the infinite hierarchy. Finally, solving this homogeneous system yields the wave speed and attenuation coefficient. The second group is the self-consistent methods [5–7]. In these self-consistent methods, monocytes is assumed that each inclusion behaves as an isolated one in a medium with the effective properties of the composite. The exciting wave acting on each inclusion is the coherent wave in the homogeneous effective medium. The wave speed and attenuation coefficient is obtained through various consistency conditions, such as the mean wave field equals the wave field propagating in the homogeneous effective medium [5] and the total scattering by the inclusions embedded in the effective medium vanishes on the average [7]. Besides these two consistency conditions, Kim and his co-authors [6] have proposed another one. Different from the work of Bussink et al. [7] in which only the inclusions scatters the waves, Kim and his co-authors assume that the wave propagating in the composite can be scattered by both the inclusions and the matrix. So the corresponding consistency condition adopted in the work of Kim et al. is the total scattering by both the inclusions and the matrix embedded in the effective medium vanishes.

In this work built on literature discussing the

In this work, built on literature discussing the effects of specimen tilt on atomic-resolution ADF-STEM images of undoped crystals [15–20], the effect of inaccuracies in alignment near low-order zone axes on the visibility of dopant atoms in ADF-STEM images has been computationally investigated for nanocrystals. Here, simple 2.5nm Ge-doped Si nanocrystals were used as a study system. Si is a common and well-characterized material and Ge dopants are preferentially located into substitutional sites. In order to isolate the effects of mistilt from other sources of experimental error, surface reconstruction and non-uniformity and residual aberrations of the lenses are ignored in these simulations. While this study examines an ideal, singly-doped spherical nanocrystal, the effects that are demonstrated can be extended into thin films and other specimen geometries and experimental setups.

ADF-STEM images of Ge-doped Si nanocrystals were simulated through the TEMSIM multislice package [21]. This method has been previously used to understand beam channeling, quantitative STEM, and dopant visibility [15,22–25]. Spherical models of 2.5nm in diameter Si nanocrystals were generated by replicating the Si lattice out to a maximum radius of 1.25nm. The structures were then rotated to the [001], [110], and [111] zone axes, and Ge dopants were iteratively substituted into lattice sites of the central column to form singly-doped structures. For the case studied here, the difference between atomic sizes of the dopant Ge and host Si (RGe= 1.22Å and RSi= 1.18Å) is very small relative the Si-Si bond length and, therefore, the effects of strain introduced by the dopant can be ignored [22,26]. However, it CM-272 is not always the case [8,27,28] and structural relaxation might be needed in other systems before applying multislice code.
For simulated ADF-STEM images of entire particles, the STEM converged probe was scanned over a 30 × 30 Å2 area containing the nanocrystal with 256 × 256 pixels. For detailed analysis of all cases, the converged probe was scanned over an 8.33 × 8.33 Å2 area in the center of the nanocrystal with 85 × 85 pixels. In each case, a transmission function was calculated for a 30 × 30 Å2 supercell with 1024 × 1024 pixels. ADF-STEM images were calculated for 54/200 mrad inner/outer collection angles. The following slice thicknesses were used in all simulations: 1.357 Å, 1.920 Å, and 0.783 Å for beams propagating along the [001], [110], and [111] zone axes, respectively. The nanocrystals were tilted within the TEMSIM code from 0 to 30 mrad off zone axis in 2 mrad steps using the slice shifting method which is detailed in Ref [21]. Due to the small size of the nanocrystals in semiconservative replication study, and the even smaller regions of interest, no statistically significant difference was observed between this approximation of specimen tilt and a rigorous manual tilting approach when studying specimens tilted up to 30 mrad off zone axis.
To show that the observations made here are not unique to a single experimental setup, two common operating conditions for aberration-corrected STEM were considered in this study. First, an aberration corrected 100kV probe with a convergence angle of αobj= 25 mrad, aberration coefficients of Cs(3)= −0.015mm, Cs(5) = 10mm, and defocus of Δf= −30Å was used. For this probe, a 1Å FWHM Gaussian source distribution, typical for 100kV beam, was applied by convoluting the source distribution function into images [22]. Second, an aberration corrected 200kV probe with a convergence angle of αobj = 25 mrad, zero aberrations were considered. For this probe a 0.5Å FWHM Gaussian source distribution, typical for 200kV beam, was applied [29]. Variations of this probe were also studied with αobj= 35 mrad and 45 mrad and ADF inner/outer angles of 65/240 and 75/278 mrad, respectively. Thermal vibrations of atoms in the nanocrystals were included by averaging 100 frozen phonon configurations using the room temperature RMS displacements (vibration amplitudes) of 0.076Å for all Si atoms and 0.080Å for Ge dopants [22,30,31]. All ADF-STEM images were normalized to the intensity of the incident beam.

A year old man with no significant past medical

A 36-year-old man with no significant past medical history presented with a history of head and neck pain and left eye vision loss one purchase atp gamma s day after a motor vehicle collision. The patient was an unrestrained, back seat, driver side passenger involved in a rear-end car-versus-car collision resulting in his left face striking the car window. On presentation, he had a temperature of 36.6 degrees Celsius, a heart rate of 56 beats per minute, and a blood pressure of 146/92mmHg.
On examination, head and neck were grossly atraumatic. Ophthalmic exam revealed intact external ocular muscles, pupils that were equal round and reactive to light and accommodation, and left eye intraocular pressure of 15mmHg. The examination of the left eye was remarkable for centrally located stellate opacity and a decreased visual acuity of 20/70. His exam did not demonstrate proptosis or signs of entrapment, signs of globe rupture, evidence of ocular foreign body or corneal abrasion. Slit lamp and fundoscopic examination did not demonstrate cell and flare, phacodonesis, lens dislocation, or commotio retinae. Imaging studies of the purchase atp gamma s and neck were unremarkable. The patient was evaluated by ophthalmology in the emergency department and the patient was diagnosed with traumatic cataract. The patient was discharged with a follow up appointment at the ophthalmology clinic for gonioscopy and cataract surgery.
Ocular trauma is the leading cause of unilateral blindness worldwide. Traumatic cataracts are a common cause of ocular morbidity in young patients. They are often associated with injury to other ocular structures, requiring a thorough evaluation at presentation. Traumatic cataracts occur after 39% of open globe injures and 11% of closed globe injuries and are due to the exposure to mechanical, irradiative, electrical, or chemical insults. These insults induce lens fiber degeneration and coagulation, affecting the normal transparent crystalline structure which leads to vision-impairing opacification. Lens opacities are generally localized, stationary and without significant loss of vision. Approximately 15% are wide or complete and permanent, with disability due to significant visual dysfunction and require surgical extraction.
Although cataracts resulting from trauma are often evident on presentation, not infrequently they may develop gradually over weeks to months after the injury. This depends on several factors such as type of injury (e.g. kinetic, thermal, chemical reduction or oxidation, or other), impact point, amount of energy delivered, presence of pre-existing ocular diseases (e.g. lens degenerative processes, previous surgery) or systemic diseases (e.g. diabetes, connective tissue diseases, autoimmune diseases). The main mechanisms for ocular damage are traumatic coup, contrecoup, and equatorial expansion of the globe. Coup injury refers to direct injury to the lens and epithelium capsule, resulting in either an abrasion, which may create focal or progressive cataract formation, or rupture of the lens capsule, which often leads to rapid opacification of the lens. Contrecoup injury refers to damage occurring at a distal site, along the plane of trajectory, as a result of shock waves, disrupting the anterior or posterior lens capsule and thus resulting in contusion cataract formation. Shortening of the meridian with simultaneous equatorial scleral stretching may result in capsular rupture at the equator, causing lens opacification, or zonular dehiscence, with consequent lens subluxation or complete dislocation. Equatorial expansion can also disrupt the anterior hyaloid face, allowing vitreous to enter the anterior chamber through the disrupted zonules.
Management of traumatic cataracts depends on the history and circumstances of the ocular trauma, diminished or the elevated intraocular pressure, inflammation, and the extent of associated anterior segment trauma. The emergency physician must have a high index of suspicion for patients that present with complaints of ocular pain or decreased visual acuity with history of trauma. Traumatic cataracts can develop at any time either acutely (hours to days) or chronically (weeks to months) after trauma to the eye. It is essential for the emergency physician to provide the patient with a thorough eye examination and establish follow up with an ophthalmologist for further evaluation and intervention as needed.