Figs and depict the distributions of primary u and secondary

Figs. 12 and 13 depict the distributions of primary (u) and secondary velocity (w) for the transient case (ωT=π/2) to a change in rotational parameter, K2. Comparing Fig. 12 with Fig. 10, we observe that an increase in K2 from 2 through 4 to 6, causes the opposite effect for the transient case compared with the steady state case; the primary flow is progressively accelerated for the transient case. For K2=8, however the flow is strongly decelerated with strong flow reversal. The passage of time therefore has a crucial role to play in modifying the primary flow patterns in the channel. For the secondary flow, in the transient case, Fig. 13 shows that an elapse in time does not alter the general flow pattern from the steady state; once again with increasing K2 from 2 through 4 to 6, there is a strong deceleration induced i.e. back flow is accentuated. With further increase in K2 to 8, the secondary velocity, w, again becomes positive. However there is a noticeable modification in the magnitudes of the secondary velocity. For K2=6, in the transient case, the minimum secondary velocity attained is −0.275 at η∼0.4, whereas in the steady state case (Fig. 11) the value is much greater at −0.48. The peak positive secondary velocity is also reduced from the transient case to 0.03 for K2=8 (strongest Coriolis force considered) and from 0.8 for the steady state case. Both peaks arise again at η∼0.4 i.e. in the upper channel half space. Clearly therefore the intensity of secondary backflow is suppressed with the passage of time in the channel, and the positive secondary flow is also stifled somewhat.
Figs. 14 and 15 show the order MS275 of u and w profiles across the channel for various inclinations angles of the channel, for the steady state case. For α=0 the channel is horizontal and for α=π/2 the channel assumes a vertical position. In the former gravitational effects will be minimized and in the latter they will be maximized. The inclination parameter arises only in the buoyancy term, Gr (sinα−F1cosα) in the primary momentum Eq. (18). However via the coupling term in the secondary momentum Eq. (19), viz the primary Coriolis force, −2K2u, the secondary velocity field will be affected by the primary velocity field. Inspection of Fig. 14 shows that as the channel inclination increases from 0 through π/6, π/4, π/3 to π/2, there is a strong acceleration in the primary flow in the major section of the lower half space. For the lower α values (0, π/6) primary velocity is negative i.e. flow reversal occurs, however for the higher α values (π/3 and π/2) primary velocity becomes positive. This trend is sustained up to η∼−0.3; thereafter a switch in the effect of inclination arises. For α=π/2, flow is completely stabilized i.e. primary velocity vanishes. Primary velocity is found to be maximized with the horizontal channel case (α=0) and minimized for the vertical channel case (α=π/2). The maximum primary velocity computed is 0.05 approximately and arises at η∼0.5; the minimum primary velocity attains a value of −0.05 also at this location in the upper channel half space. There is a clear symmetry in the primary velocity profiles about the η-axis for opposite inclination values, for example the α=0 profile is a reflection of the α=π/2 profile in the η-axis. Similarly the α=π/6 profile is a reflection of the α=π/3 profile in the η-axis. Fig. 15 shows that a very similar response is apparent in the secondary velocity profiles; however the magnitudes are considerably smaller than those of the primary velocity. The maximum secondary velocity is now only 0.02 and the minimum −0.02, both located closer to the upper plate at η∼0.6. This is expected since the secondary velocity field is only indirectly affected by channel inclination via the primary momentum equation; the principal effect will be experienced by the primary flow field.
Figs. 16 and 17 show the influence of channel inclinations, for the transient case (ωT=π/2) on primary and secondary velocity distributions. Comparing the primary flow in Fig. 16 with the steady state case (Fig. 14), two important differences are observed. Firstly with passage of time, the magnitudes of primary velocity are reduced; for example the maximum u value is now w=0.02 compared with w=0.05 (steady state), again for the maximum inclination case (α=π/2). Secondly the transition from positive flow to back flow for lower channel inclinations (and from back flow to positive flow for higher channel inclinations) is displaced to just beyond the channel center line in the upper channel half space for the transient case, whereas Archean/Proterozoic Era clearly arises some distance into the lower channel half space for the steady state case. For the secondary flow, the opposite effect is generated. Magnitudes are observed to be increased for the transient case compared with the steady state case (Fig. 15); also the transition from positive flow to backflow (and vice versa) migrates from a point just beyond the channel center line (for the steady state case) to deep into the lower half space (for the transient case). As with the steady state profiles, there is again a sharp symmetry in the secondary velocity profiles about the η-axis for opposite inclination values, for the transient case, as there is for the steady state case. Generally secondary flow is aided with the elapse of time.

Aspects of the atmospheric environm http www apexprep

Aspects of the atmospheric environment, such as humidity, pressure, and temperature, belong to the last set of parameters. The average nanofiber diameter decreases with increasing atmospheric temperature and decreasing atmospheric humidity [23].
Electrospun TiO2/PVP nanofibers were synthesized using different titanium oxide precursors with a constant flow rate, needle tip-to-collector distance, and applied voltage in most electrospun experiments [2,8,28–31]. The fibers have a smooth and uniform surface with a random orientation, and the average fiber diameters range from 132 to 2280nm [24–27]. Kumar and co-worker used a different applied voltage and flow rate with a constant needle-to-collector distance. At ∼10cm, the average diameter of the as-spun TiO2/PVP nanofiber was 450nm at 10kV and 1ml/h, 262nm at 20kV and 1ml/h, and 145nm at 20kV and 0.5ml/h [20].
The Taguchi method for robust experimental design is a useful engineering approach to select the optimal levels of processing parameters with the minimal sensitivity to different causes of variations. Furthermore, such a method can also elucidate the effects of a large and complex number of factors on an individual and interactive basis. In general, two essential tools are required, namely an orthogonal array (OA) to simultaneously accommodate several experimental design factors, and signal to noise ratio (S/N) to measure the most carboxypeptidase robust set of operating conditions from variations within the results [17,28–31].
In this study, TiO2 nanofibers were fabricated with PVP carboxypeptidase as precursor using both sol–gel and electrospinning techniques. An optimum combination of parameters obtained from TiP concentration, flow rate, needle tip-collector distance, and applied voltage in response to minimizing diameter size and its variation for TiO2/PVP nanofibers was determined by means of the Taguchi DoE method. Such an optimum condition was further implemented to explore the effect of needle size on fiber diameters accordingly.

Experimental procedure


Results and discussion

An L9 orthogonal array along with S/N ratios and ANOVA in Taguchi DoE method was used to investigate TiP concentration, flow rate, needle tip-to-collector distance, and applied voltage at three different levels on the nanofiber diameter of electrospun TiO2/PVP. The small nanofiber diameter with the minimum variance has been found to be controlled mainly by two significant factors, namely TiP concentration, and needle tip-to-collector distance. The optimum combination of factors with the highest level of the TiP concentration, and the highest relative needle tip-to-collector distance (position a) was found along with a flow rate of 1ml/h and an applied voltage setting of 18kV (A60B1CaD18). The effects of the needle size on the nanofiber diameter and its variation of electrospun TiO2/PVP were also investigated based on this optimal combination. It was determined that the needle size is a non-significant factor in the nanofiber diameter of electrospun TiO2/PVP.

The authors wish to acknowledge Mrs. E. Miller for the technical assistance with SEM analysis. Moreover, H. Albetran is grateful to the College of Education – Dammam, University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia for the financial support in the form of a PhD Scholarship.

The La2M2+O4 (M: transition metal elements) compounds with K2NiF4-type structure display a wide range of interesting properties such as the host compound of high-Tc superconducting oxides in La2CuO4 and oxide ion conductivity in La2NiO4[1]. In another solid solution system, La2Li0.5Me3+0.5O4 (Me: Al, Co, Ni, Mn) compounds also belong to the same K2NiF4-type structure. The structural and physical properties of La2Li0.5Co0.5O4 and La2Li0.5Ni0.5O4 were intensively investigated from a viewpoint of a relationship between the MeO6 octahedral distortion and electronic configuration of Me3+[2–6]. On the other hand, La2Li0.5Al0.5O4 polycrystalline sample was previously prepared using a precursor material of the thermal decomposed product of lanthanum and aluminum nitrates [7]. Abbattista et al. [7] determined the crystal structure of La2Li0.5Al0.5O4 using powder XRD data, although they have never refined the atomic displacement parameters. As this compound is interested in oxide and/or lithium ion conducting host structure, well-characterized single-crystal sample is highly desirable to clarify the true crystal symmetry and precise structural properties of La2Li0.5Al0.5O4; however, the corresponding crystals have not been synthesized yet to our knowledge.

We believe that the inconsistency could be

We believe that the inconsistency could be a result of technical artifacts: (i) spatial resolution; (ii) exclusion criterion; and (iii) difference in the study period. Our study employing grid zip Supplier of uniform sizes appeared to be more sensitive in illuminating relationships than some 400 DCCAs. Indeed, a subsequent study by Lee and Wong concurred that spatial analysis could be affected by data resolution. They indicated that the 18 zip Supplier Administrative Districts of Hong Kong were less appropriate for disease diffusion study than the finer resolution of 500 m × 500 m grid cells although they did not repeat the analysis on the relationship between population density and the number of case reports. Our study demonstrated successfully that the grid cell approach was able to extract the relationship hidden by larger aggregated spatial units. Our study also showed that excluding country parks (all cells with census data in Table 4) and excluding non-diseased grid cells (cells with H1N1 cases only in Table 4) offered additional discriminating powers to isolate salient factors in disease relationships. However, a higher spatial resolution does not necessarily mean improved associative relationships. By considering smaller spatial units of 200 m or 400 m, we introduced inevitably more data scattering and diminished health effects because of insufficient explanatory powers especially when disease cases in the earlier phases of an infection outbreak were not many. Finally, our study considered data in the early phases of the 2009 H1N1 outbreak (1 May-8 July 2009) whereas Lee and Wong extended their data analysis to the end of July 2009. Their data analysis could be confounded by more rigorous intervention and control measures at the later stages of the outbreak.
Hypotheses 2 and 3, respectively about disease incidence with the elderly population or cross-district work population exhibited significant relationships but their effect sizes were relatively small. Nevertheless, the positive relationships with disease incidence appeared logical. Elderly individuals were expected to have lower resistance to illnesses while the mobile cross-district workers were expected to have higher probabilities in contracting infectious diseases. The insignificant relationships between disease incidence and younger population (ages < 25) for hypothesis 1 were likely confounded by better hygiene and control measures at the school level. Even though the younger population made up the largest proportions of H1N1 cases as reported in Table 1, the majority of infection occurred among school-age children attending the same school that did not seem to exhibit significant spatial association. The process of disaggregating map units to the finer grid cell level has proven effective in two aspects. Firstly, the gridded data are easy to manipulate in an automated setting. Secondly, the grid format seems to ameliorate the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem. Even though grid cells may be preferred, aggregation by preset areal units (such as census subdivisions and administrative districts) has remained essential because they represent standard geographic units to collect census data or areas of jurisdiction to implement broad policies, laws and regulations. The grid format may be useful for analysis but it must be reconstituted into some preset administrative units to draw reference to area-based socio-economic measures. Our study showed that results would vary in accordance with spatial resolution. Errors and false alarms could be prevented or minimized by choosing the proper data resolution.
One limitation in relying on risk factors based on local census is the inability to account for a sudden upsurge in disease occurrences arising from external sources. Nelson indicated that the SARS outbreak in 2003 originated from a visitor as opposed to a local resident. Although the four factors could still be useful in simulating disease transmission, additional variables such as the occupancy rate of hotels within an area would be useful in estimating the potential of imported cases.

These findings have significant implications for recommendations to

These findings have significant implications for recommendations to enrich AD clinical trials based on initial severity. Enrichment using this ptio criterion would select individuals with greater severity as being more likely to progress, which would be consistent with the larger slopes (and greater potential for slope reduction) seen in our analysis. However, such an approach runs counter to current approaches targeting individuals with lesser severity as having less neuropathology and being more likely to respond to treatment [26], which would be consistent with the larger contribution of baseline ADAS-Cog scores to the end-of-trial score than the change due to slope differences. These opposing recommendations highlight the potential limitations with analysis of observational studies and post hoc failed therapeutic trials, which cannot give a definitive depiction of the effects of a successful treatment.
Enrichment based on baseline severity would have adverse consequences by shrinking the recruitment pool for a clinical trial, reducing efficiency by requiring a longer enrollment period, more clinical sites, or increased recruitment effort, without a clear gain in efficacy by targeting likely responders or greatly increasing the rates of decline. As examples of this, we used the meta-database to examine the placebo arm of a clinical trial restricted to more severe samples and to less severe samples (Box 1). Enrichment based on MMSE status had only a small effect on the annual rate of change of the ADAS-Cog, and at the expense of excluding a large number of subjects. Enriching for baseline MMSE scores of 12–22 instead of 12–26 resulted in a difference of less than one point per year on the ADAS-Cog, but reduced the available sample pool by more than 800 subjects. Enrichment based on less severe MMSE scores resulted in a slower rate of progression on the ADAS-Cog compared with unenriched samples. Such results indicate that investigators should consider prospectively stratifying trials based on cognitive severity rather than enriching based on initial cognitive severity when attempting to improve AD trial design.
Although the goal of directing trials of therapies in AD toward individuals who are more likely to respond is a reasonable one, researchers must also consider whether the exclusion of potential participants not meeting the enrichment criteria would adversely affect the efficiency of the trial [27]. The use of baseline cognitive severity, as measured by the MMSE, serves as a predictor of disease progression in mild to moderate AD but may not predict treatment response. As such, further research to demonstrate its use is needed, and Kreb’s cycle cannot be recommended for enriching clinical trials.


Funding acknowledgments: Funding for this reported was provided by NIH (R01 AG 037561, P50 AG05142). Data used in the preparation of this study were obtained from the Alzheimer\’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI, NIA [U01 AG024904]) database (, and from the ADCS (NIHAG10483). Study sponsorship or funding: Supported by NIHR01 AG037561. Contributors. Conflict of interest statement. [During the 36 month window before submission] Disclosures of all authors\’ financial relationships deemed relevant to the manuscript: Dr. Lon S. Schneider reports being an editor on the Cochrane Collaboration Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group, which oversees systematic reviews of drugs for cognitive impairment and dementia; receiving a grant from the Alzheimer\’s Association for a registry for dementia and cognitive impairment trials; within the past three years receiving grant or research support from NIA, Baxter, Eli Lilly, Forum, Genentech, Lundbeck, Merck, Novartis, Pfizer and Tau Rx; and having served as a consultant for or receiving consulting fees from AC Immune, Allon, AstraZeneca, Avraham Pharmaceutical, Ltd, Baxter, Biogen Idec, Cerespir, Cytox, Elan, Eli Lilly, Forum, GlaxoSmithKline, Johnson & Johnson, Lundbeck, Merck, Pfizer, Roche, Servier, Takeda, Toyama, and Zinfandel.

Diverse methods have been adopted for evaluating

Diverse methods have been adopted for evaluating the potential toxicological effects of aquatic pollutants. The incidence of micronuclei in fish peripheral erythrocytes [7], comet assay [13] as well as mitotic chromosomes of the head kidney [14] have been used as an imperative tool for monitoring genotoxicity in aquatic environments.
The frequency of micronucleus (MN) in the peripheral blood erythrocytes is one of the best established in vivo cytogenetic assays in the field of genetic toxicology, providing a convenient and reliable index of both chromosome breakage and chromosome loss [15]. Therefore, MN is recommended to be conducted as a part of the monitoring protocols in aquatic toxicological assessment programs [16].
Teleost head kidney (HK) has been considered as a haemopoietic organ similar to the bone marrow of higher vertebrates characterized by high proportion of actively dividing beta adrenergic blockers [17]. Standard procedures for mitotic chromosomal preparation from the HK tissue have been used to gain information about the nature and extent of the damage that may be produced by in vivo treatments [18]. The mitotic chromosomes from the HK of the fish Tilapia niloticus have been studied with an initiative to gain information about the nature and extent of the damage that may be produced by in vivo treatments [14].
Liver is the major site of xenobiotic accumulation and bio-transformation, analyses of initial molecular lesions elicited by pollutants in this organ gives early-warning and sensitive indicator of chemical induced carcinogenic lesions [19]. So, it was reliable to use the liver cells as an indicator for the genotoxic effect of malathion using comet assay.
Nowadays, a great concern is directed toward the use of natural products for improving fish health status, and consequently increasing the resistance to stressors including pollutants. Flavonoids are naturally produced in plants and stored in different forms such as propolis [20]. The biological activities of propolis depend on the presence of flavonoids, aromatic acids, diterpenic acids and phenolic compounds which have important pharmacological properties. Propolis is an alternative dietary antibiotic [21] that is effective against a variety of bacteria [22], viruses [23] beta adrenergic blockers and fungi [24], and is beneficial for improving the performance and immunity [25].
Bee pollen is considered as one of nature’smostcompletely nourishingfoods since it contains essential substances such as carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, lipids, vitamins, mineral substances and trace elements [26]. The main bioactive compounds reported from bee pollen are phenolic compounds and specifically quercetin, kaempferol, caffeic acid [27] and naringenin [28]. Globally bee pollen has been reported to provide a diverse array of bioactivities, such as anti-proliferative, anti-allergic, antibiotic, anti-diarrheic and antioxidant activities [29,30].
The present work aimed at verifying the protective effect of honeybee products (propolis and pollen) supplemented in the feed of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) against the genotoxic and reproduction disruptive effects of acute and chronic exposure to malathion polluted water.

Material and methods

Experiment I: Effect of pollen and propolis in controlling mortality and genotoxicity in O. niloticus exposed to lethal concentration (96h LC50).

The aquatic environment plays a vital role for functioning of ecosystem and is intimately related to human health. A majority of contaminants contain potentially genotoxic and endocrine disruptive substances. These chemicals are responsible for DNA damage in variety of aquatic organisms and fish causing malignancies, reduced survival of embryos, larvae and adults, eventually affecting the economy of fish production significantly. The present study supposed that honey bee products (propolis and pollen) are able to provide genoprotection and preserve male tilapia fecundity when acutely or chronically exposed to malathion. Acute toxicity testing is widely used in order to identify the exposure dose and the time associated with death of 50 percent of the fish (LC50) exposed to toxic materials. Current results showed that 96h-LC50 of malathion for O. niloticus was 5ppm and therefore 1/5 of the median lethal dose (1ppm) was used for chronic toxicity assessment. These findings came in accordance with that the 96h-lethal (LC50) dose for Nile tilapia was 4mg/L [45] and the sub-lethal dose was 2mg/L [2], but higher than that recorded in earlier studies which showed that the LC50 value for tilapia varied from 1.06ppm [46] to 2.2ppm [47]. In the meantime, Vittozi and De-Angelis [48] summarized the 96h-LC50 values of malathion from 0.091 to 22.09ppm for different species. Alkahem et al. [49] mentioned that the magnitude of toxic effects of pesticides depends on length and weight, corporal surface to body weight ration and breathing rate.

br Conclusions In the present paper the geotechnical behavior of

In the present paper, the geotechnical behavior of shell foundation with and without single layer of reinforcement was investigated experimentally and compared with flat footing. The following major conclusions are put in a quantitative form to the extent possible. Even though the values so given apply to the specific data used in the analysis, they can be considered indicative of the general trend of these results.

Conflict of interest
The author declares that there is no conflict of interest.

Compliance with Ethics Requirements
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are multifactorial disorders which have strong environmental influences in combination with its polygenic nature. In general, the occurrence of CVD is influenced by genetic and life retinoic acid receptor factors such as obesity, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, alcohol drinking and smoking. The prevalence of CVD in India is expected to be very high and it has risen many-fold in past two decades [1–4] due to an increase in westernized diets, life styles and the increasing mean age of populations [5]. The risk factors for cardiovascular disease seem to cut across all cultural patterns and geographic regions in India. It is observed that the risk factors of metabolic syndrome like hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and blood pressures clustered together. On the other hand, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) are significantly associated with metabolic syndrome. Therefore, it is difficult to trace better predictor for CVD. Several studies have reported that increased WC has significant association with dyslipidemia and considered as a good predictor of cardiovascular diseases [6–10]. However, all the anthropometric and physiometric risk factors are inter-correlated with each other and equally responsible to produce CVD. In recent times, a different approach has been applied to identify the better predictor for cardiovascular diseases. Presently, principal component factor analysis (PCFA) has been used to extract independent factors from large amount of inter-correlated factors [1,11,12]. The PCFA is a statistical method of data reduction which has been used in past many years to identify the clustering of risk factors of the metabolic syndrome [1,2,11,13]. All these studies have consistently found multiple factors. The first principal component is a linear combination of the individual variables that are associated with the maximum variance in the data among all possible linear combinations. For complex diseases like CVD the first principal component can be used to indicate the extent to which any individual’s CVD risk factors are consistent with having the CVD. However, in Indian context the paucity of family and generations based information and complex etiology of this risk factor made it difficult to uncover the disease pathways. Therefore, the present study involved Ramadasia community of north-west Punjab, India. The Ramadasia community is a unique population to study multifactorial disorders. The combination of social, educational and economical backwardness leads to community sharing a common environment, minimizing differences in lifestyle factors such as diet, exercise, education and stress compared to other populations. Therefore, the homogeneous environment shared by individuals is of great significance in studying complex disorders, especially CVD, which appears to be a threshold effect influenced by lifestyle factors. This community is also of interest in genetic studies as large number of individuals lived in joint families. The current study focused to determine significant cardiovascular risk factors through principal component factor analysis (PCFA) among three generations (offspring, parental and grandparental) in both sexes.

Our results show that C Kit expression when present is

Our results show that C-Kit expression, when present, is detected in cytoplasm of tumor nuclear receptor of studied cases in both tumor groups, but is lacking in endothelial cells of tumor vessels of any of them. It is expressed in 60% of KS cases and 100% of KHE cases. The difference between KS & KHE as regards the frequency and the pattern of c-Kit positivity in studied cases is not statistically significant; however, the intensity of positivity was significantly higher in KS (p=0.002). These findings reveal an essential role for c-Kit in KS and KHE tumorigenesis that can be targeted in pharmacological intervention in these tumors and this is also proved by others [27].
Raggo et al. reported that spindle-cell formation in dermal microvascular endothelial cells is caused by c-Kit activation [28]. To our knowledge no other studies have assessed c-Kit expression in KHE, and although a number of studies in the literature have scrutinized its expression in KS cases, their results exhibited notable controversies [3,6,9,29,30]. Whereas some authors found no expression [31], others detected the protein in 15.3% [24], 25.6% [26] or even in 43% of cases [9]. The figures of our results were closest to those reported by Pantanowitz et al. (56%) [9] and Kandemir et al[3] (62.9%) whose studies were conducted exclusively on classic KS. Kandemir et al. [3] ascribe this obvious contradiction to the fact the former two studies [6,31] did not specify the exact epidemiological type or histological stage under study. Also, they explained the deviation in results with respect to others was by the variation in technical parameters, as length of storage and fixation of tissues, the variation in immunohistochemical procedures employed [3], in addition to the possibility of sampling bias [9].
Comparing our results regarding c-Kit positivity in the different histological stages of KS, to others’, reactivity in the plaque (66.67%) and nodular (57,14%) phases exceeded that obtained in the same stages by Pantanowitz et al. (53%, 47% respectively) [9]. It is worth noting, however, that the later study was conducted on epidemiologically heterogeneous types of KS. In the current study, c-Kit staining pattern was focal in all studied cases and this was comparable to Hussein et al., who reported diffuse in 61.5% and focal in 38.5% of positive cases of their study [19].
CD34 is a cell surface protein. Its gene is coded on chromosome lq/32. Human myeloid and lymphoid series of haematopoietic cells as well as endothelial cells express CD34. CD34 may have a role in regulation of early events of blood cell differentiation. Besides, it may function in endothelial cells and haematopoietic progenitor cells as an adhesion molecule [32].
These results strongly favor a progenitor cell origin of the tumor cell elements in Kaposi sarcoma and KHE. Sidney et al. reported in 2014 that CD34 is not associated only with hematopoietic and endothelial cells, but it is a surface antigen that is suitable for selecting progenitor cell subpopulations from larger cell populations, including mesenchymal cells [33]. The presence or absence of CD34 is not an absolute indication of differentiation in a vascular tumor as it is expressed by blood vessel endothelium and in lymphatic endothelium in weaker but demonstrable levels [34].
In this study the well-formed capillaries, the small slit-like vascular spaces, the sieve-like areas and the spindle cells have all expressed CD34 in both KHE and KS cases. This observation is similar to others [22,32,35,36]. In addition, lymphangiomatoid elements within KHE cases shows CD34 positivity and this was similar to that is reported by Ramani, et al. [37].
These findings were similar to Gurzu et al. [18], who suggested a possible origin of KS from pluripotential mesenchymal stem cells of the connective tissue (PMCs) that were recognized in the connective tissue of dermis, skeletal muscles, and other organs [38]. These cells can originate from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells [39,40], from reprogrammed fibroblasts [41], or from circulating fibrocytes [42,43]. They present genetic and epigenetic abnormalities that can be related to some oncogenic pathways. These modified PMCs secrete cytokines, integrins, and growth factors and possess a multilineage capacity [18]. According to the induction medium, these cells can differentiate into mesodermal or neuroectodermal lineage. C-KIT and CD34 positivity is obtained in the mesodermal lineage [44].

In conclusion the results of this

In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that the susceptibility of S. marcescens to ceftazidime and imipenem in Taiwan remained consistently high over the study period. S. marcescens isolates from Taiwan demonstrated relatively higher resistance to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin than other β-lactams, and continued surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in S. marcescens, especially for fluoroquinolones, is warranted. TSAR is ongoing in Taiwan involving clinically important bacteria. The longitudinal surveillance study will continue to provide key information related to antimicrobial resistance over time.

Conflicts of interest

We express our sincere appreciation to the hospitals that participated in the TSAR program. This project was supported by an intramural grant from the National Health Research Institutes (NHRI) (grant nos. ID-099-PP-01 and ID-100-PP-01) and Yen Tjing Ling Medical Foundation (grant no. CI-100-30). We thank the technical staff at NHRI for their assistance in identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of a broad spectrum of diseases collectively known as melioidosis. This disease occurs in tropical areas, especially in southeast Asia and northern Australia. As a facultative and intracellular bacterium, B. pseudomallei can multiply in both phagocytic and nonphagocytic cells. The bacterium can spread from cell to cell and can also induce apoptotic death in infected host cells. Apoptosis is mediated by many alzheimer\’s association and signal transduction pathways. The first group of enzymes involved in apoptosis, including apoptosis induced by bacterial pathogens, is caspases. Caspases are proteases that are shown to cleave many cellular proteins that result in membrane changes, including the alteration of membrane asymmetry, mitochondrial changes, and DNA fragmentation.
Although B. pseudomallei has been shown to induce apoptotic death in host cells, the involvement of other apoptosis-related genes/proteins has not yet been determined. Therefore, in the present study, a mouse macrophage cell line was selected as an in vitro model to investigate whether other unpublished apoptosis-related genes and/or proteins are involved in B. pseudomallei-induced death.

Materials and methods


The macrophage–pathogen interactions play an important role in the pathogenesis of bacterial infections. The proapoptotic mechanisms by these bacteria include the activation of several proapoptotic proteins (e.g., caspases), the inactivation of antiapoptotic proteins, and the upregulation of endogenous receptor/ligand systems. The change of the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 can stimulate the release of cytochrome c, which activates caspase-9 and caspase-3, and it may govern sensitivity to apoptotic stimuli. In addition to the expression of Bax and Bcl-2, we detected the expression of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 in the infected cells (Fig. 2), indicating that these proteins could be involved in apoptosis.
Real-time PCR array results showed that expression level of some of these genes in the infected cells was either upregulated or downregulated. For example, the messenger RNA levels of tumor necrosis factor ligand (e.g., tnfsf10 and tnfrs10b) and fas were increased, whereas the expression levels of antiapoptosis genes such as Birc5, Hells, and Bnip3 alzheimer\ were decreased. Although the exact molecular target and mechanism of apoptosis induction by bacterial infection still need further investigation, our results provided basis for mechanistic studies of the infection of macrophages by B. pseudomallei. We further used quantitative real-time PCR to measure the levels of expression of some selected genes (CD40, casp1, fas, and tnfrsf10b) in a time-dependent manner. The results of quantitative real-time PCR correspond with those obtained by apoptosis-based pathway real-time PCR array (Fig. 3). Taken together, our results first proved that B. pseudomallei induce apoptosis-related genes and proteins in macrophages.

Our patient s vision and corneal sensation improved at months

Our patient\’s vision and corneal sensation improved at 8 months after surgery, with continued improvement at a 2 year follow up, consistent with the report by Elbaz et al. Our study is limited by the fact that the corneal sensation was evaluated by physical examination alone. Measure of corneal sensibility using esthesiometer as well as the study of the morphological parameters, including nerve imaging, would have offered further insights into the mechanisms of corneal reinnervation.


Penetrating ocular injuries represent a potentially devastating threat to vision that require prompt surgical intervention. Retained intraocular foreign body (IOFB) injuries are an important subset of these injuries, with the majority ending up in the vitreous cavity or retina/choroid. In spite of the complexity and severity of these injuries, improved surgical techniques have improved the number of eyes salvaged and have resulted in 60–71% of these patients\’ eyes achieving greater than 20/40 visual acuity. In eyes with final visual acuity worse than 20/40 visual acuity, macular injury resulting in scarring represents a significant cause.

Case report
A 74 year old man presented to the emergency department several hours after experiencing immediate pain and central blurry vision in his left eye while hammering a metal screwdriver. His initial visual acuity was 20/400 with eccentric fixation in the left eye. His right eye had a history of 20/200 vision after blunt trauma approximately 60 years prior. On exam, he BTL-105 cost had a nasal subconjunctival hemorrhage and 2.0 mm scleral laceration, approximately 0.5 mm from the limbus at the 8 o\’clock meridian with no uveal prolapse. He had a mild nuclear sclerosis cataract with no focal opacity. A linear area of retinal hemorrhage and whitening was noted slightly temporally to the fovea, presumed to be point of impact, but obscured by vitreous hemorrhage. A flat metallic IOFB was seen in the temporal anterior peripheral vitreous at the 3 o\’clock meridian and confirmed on CT scan (Fig. 1).
On day two, the patient had count fingers vision at six feet vision, mild vitreous hemorrhage and displaced macular laceration with retinal edema and no vitreo-macular adhesions (Fig. 2A,B). On day 6, his exam was unchanged and he underwent pneumatic retinopexy with 0.6 ml of 100% sulfur hexafluoride gas. He positioned face down for four days. The optical coherence tomogram (OCT) showed re-opposed macular laceration (Fig. 2C,D). On day 72, his visual acuity returned to 20/30 with preserved ellipsoid zone in the umbo, mild epiretinal membrane and adjacent atrophy (Fig. 2E,F,G,H).

In a recent series of patients with IOFB, macular scar was the second most common cause of visual acuity below 20/40 (29% of cases) after retinal detachment. The pneumatic retinopexy in this case was an attempt to minimize this damage in a patient with pre-existing poor vision in the contralateral eye. It is difficult to prove that this intervention improved this patient\’s visual outcome compared to no intervention, as this is a single case.
Posterior IOFB injuries can also result in the foreign body resting in an intraretinal location. Even though this patient\’s IOFB location rested in the vitreous cavity, Dosage compensation passed through an intraretinal location on its trajectory and therefore exhibited some characteristics of an intraretinal IOFB injury. This patient developed epiretinal membrane, which is reported in 60% of intraretinal IOFBs in one series.
Despite the macular point of impact, this patient\’s injury had several characteristics that have been previously correlated with favorable visual outcome. For example, this IOFB was relatively small, from a sharp metal (rather than blunt), and not associated with uveal prolapse, loss of lens material or retinal detachment. Macular point of impact was recognized before vitrectomy for IOFB removal and although the piece of metal was not seen to fall posteriorly during the time of surgery, injury at the time of surgery cannot be ruled out as a possibility.

br The presence of PD in the airways of

The presence of PD1 in the airways of normal human subjects has been documented in condensates of exhaled breath, with a decrease in PD1 levels below the detection limit in exhaled breath condensates of asthmatic patients during exacerbation of the disease. We found decreased productions of PD1 and 15-HETE, a 15-lipoxygenase metabolite of arachidonic acid, by stimulated peripheral blood eosinophils from patients with severe asthma, suggesting an impairment in 15-lipoxygenase activity in severe asthma. In contrast, the similar levels of 5-HETE, a 5-lipoxygenase product of arachidonic acid, were observed in patients with severe asthma and healthy subjects, indicating a selectively dysregulated enzymatic activity of 15-lipoxygenase (Fig. 2).
Several reports showed decreased biosynthesis or levels of LXA4, a potent anti-inflammatory lipid mediator with suppressive effects on allergic airway inflammation in vivo in BALF, exhaled breath condensate, whole blood, and sputum of severe asthmatics. Bhavsar et al., demonstrated that the alveolar macrophage was one of the specific cell types with impaired LXA4 biosynthetic capacity. Similar defects in LXA4 synthesis were observed in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), asthma exacerbation, and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in asthma. Those observations are concordant with our observation of selective dysregulation of PD1 synthesis in human eosinophils, and we propose that impaired fatty lenvatinib metabolism may contribute to the pathogenesis of severe asthma. In addition, these observations suggest that dysregulation of a negative feedback system via these pro-resolving molecules might be the underlying pathophysiology in severe asthma. Omega-3 fatty acid supplements might not provide sufficient anti-inflammatory activity because of impaired enzymatic activities in asthma patients. The administration of PD1 or LXA4, or of a molecule that can enhance their synthetic activities, might offer a promising therapeutic strategy for severe asthma.


Conflict of interest

The prevalence of self-reported systemic Hymenoptera sting reactions among adults ranges from 0.5% to 3.3% in the US while European epidemiological studies report the prevalence of systemic reactions between 0.3% and 7.5%. Similarly, the prevalence of large local reactions in the general population ranges from 2.4% to 26.4% in many studies. This wide variation may depend on the different definitions of the large local reactions, the degree of exposure and the study population.
The prevalence of Hymenoptera venom allergy in adults was evaluated in a number of studies conducted in Turkey. In each of these studies, a selected population such as factory workers, beekeepers or hospital patients was used to determine the prevalence of insect allergies in Turkey. However, in developing countries like Turkey there is a need for large population-based studies which report both the results of a questionnaire as well as skin and serological tests that can confirm case histories and evaluate the general prevalence of Hymenoptera allergy.


According to the first questionnaire, a total of 1171 (9.9%; 95%CI: 9.38–10.47%) persons had answered ‘YES’ to the first question related to Hymenoptera stings. The self-reported lifetime prevalence of hypersensitivity to Hymenoptera stings calculated for all age groups and gender is shown in Table 2. It was found as 10% for both men (95% CI: 8.9–10.9) and women (95% CI: 9.3–10.5). The prevalence of systemic and large local reactions and the culprit insects are also shown in Table 3. There was no significant difference between the prevalence of these reactions and the reported culprit insects between the age groups and the two genders.
In the present study, people without nasal allergies, itching dermatitis/urticaria or familial atopy were found to experience more hypersensitivity reactions to Hymenoptera stings. People aged 40 years old and older were also found to be more affected (Table 4). Doctor-diagnosed asthma, food hypersensitivity, exposure to cigarette smoke or household pets did not seem to be influencing factors on hypersensitivity to Hymenoptera stings.