Evaluating the maxillary vertical skeletal relationship

Evaluating the maxillary vertical skeletal relationship was conducted by measuring the angle formed by the intersection of the Centroid-Nasion (C-N) line, with the maxillary or palatal plane (PP) to form the C-N/PP angle. Likewise, evaluating the mandibular vertical skeletal relationship was conducted by measuring the angle formed by the intersection of the C-N line with the mandibular plane (MP) to form the C-N/MP angle, while the difference between them (PP and MP) still represents their vertical relationship to each other (Fig. 2).
The sagittal and vertical maxillary and mandibular relationship were also investigated for the same sample by utilizing the conventional, clinically accepted, and widely used cephalometric angles such as S-N-A, S-N-B, A-N-B, for the sagittal relationship, and S-N/MP, S-N/PP, PP/MP, for the vertical relationship (Figs. 1 and 2).
The mean value of each of the remaining two sagittal and the two vertical variables of the conventional S-N based angular measurements were subtracted from the corresponding mean value of that mglur sagittal and vertical variable of the C-N based angular measurements, i.e.,
The resulted subtracted mean difference for the four groups were statistically tested using the one way ANOVA and Tukey multiple comparison Post Hoc test. The significance level was set at P<0.05.
Results
The results indicated high correlation between the endings of the ten digitized and re-digitized data (Table 1). The net sagittal and vertical intermaxillary angular measurements expressed by the A-N-B and PP/MP angles were not affected by neither the C-N nor the S-N reference lines. The mean and standard deviation of the C-N based, the conventional S-N based and the subtracted difference values of the investigated sagittal and vertical variables were presented (Table 2).
The one way ANOVA showed statistical difference between the four sagittal and vertical subtracted mean values (P=0.000) (Table 3). Tukey multiple comparison Post Hoc test also showed that the subtracted mean values of the sagittal variables were statistically different than the subtracted mean values of the vertical variables (P=0.000). However, there was no significant difference between the subtracted mean values within the individual sagittal and vertical variables (P=1.00 and P=0.93), respectively (Table 4).

Discussion
The reliability of the study indicated that the digitization technique, the method used for cephalometric landmark identification and data collection was significantly reliable. This was in support to what was reported on the reliability and reproducibility of scanned and computer digitized images (Turner and Weerakone, 2001; Bruntz et al., 2006; Sayinsu et al., 2007; Roden-Johnson et al., 2008).
Table 2 showed that the subtracted mean values for the sagittal variables were almost the same (5.31) and (5.34), and the subtracted mean values for the vertical variables were almost similar (−6.09) and (−5.32). Tables 3 and 4 statistically confirm that the subtracted mean values of the sagittal variables were the same with no statistical difference between them. The same with the subtracted mean values of the vertical variables which were again statistically the same with no difference between them. Therefore, the values (5.31), (5.34), (−6.09) and (−5.32) could be considered constant, with the sign of the sagittal values being positive (+), and the vertical values were negative (−). This could be interpreted as to reflect reliable constant cephalometric inclination of the main non-anatomical soft and hard tissue centroid line for such homogenous sample.
Thus our statistical findings in Tables 3 and 4 indicated that the C-N based analysis was not statistically different from the conventionally used S-N based analysis. The new C-N reference line had the ability to evaluate and distinguish between the sagittal and vertical maxillo–mandibular relationship as the conventionally used Sella-Nasion (S-N) reference plane. However, the use of the C-N based analysis has the advantage over the conventional S-N based analysis in that, it is not affected by the abnormality in tipping or tilting of the anterior cranial base (S-N plane) if it exists.

Cosa semejante sucede al representar el lugar

Cosa semejante sucede al representar el lugar del juego, la “sala baxa, larga, estrecha i alta, pero más ancha de arriba que de abajo, i más alta á los lados que á las fronteras” que tenía “en las paredes de los lados unas piedras como de molino, con su agujero en medio, que pasaba brain metabolism la otra parte”, que describe Herrera. Al seguir los parámetros establecidos en Europa para representar el trinquete y el jeu de paume, Pieter van der Aa representa el espacio de juego como un alargado edificio con miradores o ventanas, cuyo muro exterior sirve para recibir la pelota y con solamente uno de los aros (a manera de una piedra de molino) situado en el suelo dentro de la larga sala, sin duda porque en el texto de Cervantes, que a su vez retomó Herrera, se omitió incluir algunos datos relevantes que apuntó Motolinía, en este caso el hecho que los aros del juego, están sujetos “en el medio de las paredes estado y medio a lo alto, en el medio, el uno frontero del otro”.
Muchas otras de las informaciones referentes al lugar del juego son dejadas de lado; por ejemplo, lo que se describe como “dos ídolos encima de las paredes del tlachco”, en el grabado reaparece como un solitario ídolo colocado sobre un pedestal en el interior de la gran sala techada; de esta forma, la búsqueda de las fórmulas y de los antecedentes, de las figuraciones de este grabado, que hasta el momento no tiene contraparte, debe hacerse en otras imágenes de la época, a la vez que debe mencionarse el gran parecido de estos y otros elementos del grabado con las representaciones de templos e ídolos en la obra de De Bry.

Indios girando a las afueras
Al seguir de manera lineal la evolución de las representaciones del juego de pelota para detectar los cambios graduales en su figuración también hemos de registrar las noticias escritas a lo largo del siglo xviii y principios del xix, debido a que en un intento por trazar una tradición histórica que se remonta a la época prehispánica, en ocasiones casi al pie de la letra, con datos cuya finalidad era otra, muchos de estos autores combinan noticias con el fin de resaltar distintos aspectos del juego de pelota, aunque con el paso del tiempo se menciona cada vez menos y se dejan de hacer imágenes de él.
Es de notar que en sus referencias hacia el juego de pelota algunos autores de la época remarcan su contento e interés por el juego y la manera en la que se golpea la pelota. Al mismo tiempo, las asociaciones que se establecen entre la nobleza indígena y la Antigüedad grecorromana con los juegos de pelota no dejan de asomarse en algunos de sus escritos. Fernández (1944: 298, 1780) por ejemplo, asienta en su escrito que el juego era “una de las diversiones más frecuentes de los reyes y más señores principales”. No obstante, no es una cuestión que impere en los textos sucesivos, ya que en ellos es evidente la insuficiente referencia y representación del juego de pelota.
En los textos e imágenes que se generan en las primeras obras generales se intenta sintetizar el conocimiento que se tenía del mundo precolombino así como en las ediciones de documentos importantes para su estudio se menciona poco el juego. Al adoptar una tendencia analítica ante los documentos que conocieron y hacer sendas anotaciones a Denaturation of protein los documentos que editan, algunos estudiosos como Carlos María Bustamante (1829), Fernando Ramírez (1867) y Joaquín García Icazbalceta no se refieren al juego de pelota o meramente lo mencionan de paso, en tanto que Orozco y Berra (1880), al referirse a otros asuntos y temas, entreteje muchas noticias conocidas del juego que se encuentran fincadas en los escritos tempranos (Carreón 2007: 94-98). Lo mismo sucede con Rafael Landívar (1965) y Francisco Javier Clavijero (1964, 1980), ambos de la Compañía de Jesús y asentados en Iatlia luego del destierro de la Nueva España; ellos recogen indirectamente las noticias registradas por Motolinía que conocen a través de los escritos de Torquemada y describen el juego de pelota. Dejan de lado el vínculo entre el juego de pelota y su uso por la nobleza indígena, mientras que dejan sentir más bien su admiración por él y la manera en la que se juega en la actualidad. En su Rusticatio Mexicana, publicado en Italia en 1781, Landívar inicia sus estrofas dedicadas al juego de pelota al escribir: “Nada, empero, proporciona un espectáculo tan admirable como la numerosa multitud de indios cuando se dedica al juego”, a la vez que da a entender que presenció el juego que se juega entre los “nayaritas, tarahumaras y otros pueblos septentrionales”, y describe detalladamente la manera de golpear la pelota (Landívar 1965: 366-369). Clavijero, quien vio su obra publicada en 1780, escribe palabras muy semejantes; a las noticias del franciscano agrega que el juego subsiste: “Dura hasta hoy este juego entre los Sinaloas, los ópatas, los tarahumaras y otras naciones del Norte, y cuantos españoles lo han visto celebran la prodigiosa agilidad de los jugadores”. Este aparente entusiasmo por el juego se puede ver opacado debido a que en la obra de Clavijero, para la que se elaboraron importantes grabados que representan algunos de los juegos y costumbres de los antiguos mexicanos, no se encuentra entre las escenas representación alguna del juego de pelota, sino el “Plan del juego de balón”, es decir, la planta de una cancha del juego de pelota, a manera de un jeroglífico azteca.

There has been much less data

There has been much less data on other drugs conjugated with gold nanoparticles (Dykman and Khlebtsov, 2011). In the present study, secnidazole was successfully bioconjugated with gold nanoparticles (Au-HSA) with accuracy and the effectiveness of gold nanoparticle bioconjugated secnidazole (Au-HSA-Snd) was tested against K. pneumonia (NCIM No. 2957) and B. cereus (NCIM No. 2156) in comparison to its unconjugated form. This system was used as a vehicle to deliver secnidazole effectively at the targeted cells. Fig. 1 illustrates the schematic synthesis of Human Serum Albumin (HSA) encapsulated gold nanoparticles (Au-HSA) by nitrate reductase and eventually their bioconjugation with secnidazole drug. The formation of the Au-HSA has been confirmed by their representative surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band measured as measured by optical density in UV–VIS p2x7 receptor spectroscopy. The SPR absorption spectra of Au-HSA and secnidazole-conjugated Human Serum Albumin coated gold nanoparticles (Au-HSA-Snd) are plotted in Fig. 2A. The size and concentration of GNPs between 5 and 100nm can be determined by using the Classical Guass method (Wolfgang et al., 2007). The linear regression equation (λmax=515.04+0.3647d) explains the relation between particle diameter and λmax (He et al., 2005). Hence, the absorbance band shifts toward red with the increase in diameter of the particles and intensity of peak decreases with a decrease in particle size due to the reduced mean free path of the electrons due to collisions of electrons with the particle surface (Haiss et al., 2007).

Conclusions

Acknowledgements
We thank the Uttar Pradesh Council of Science and Technology (UPCST), Government of India, for financial assistance. This work was supported by a grant to Dr. Mohd Sajid Khan from UPCST, India.

Introduction
About 140million persons reside at high altitudes over 2500m, mainly in North, Central, and South America; Asia; and eastern Africa (ward et al., 2000; Sherpa et al., 2011). Pamirs, Hindu Kush, Karakorum, Koh-e-Safaid and Great Himalaya are the mountain ranges located in Pakistan. Adjacent to these ranges are different cities and villages in which people reside permanently. In Balochistan the high altitude places are Ziarat, Zhob Harboi (Kalat District) etc., these towns are located adjacent to the Sulaiman ranges and Kirthar Mountain Ranges (Khan, 1991).
It is reported by the United States centers of disease control and prevention in Atlanta that about 400,000 deaths p2x7 receptor in USA are associated with less exercise and poor diet (Mokdad et al., 2000).
High HDL, triglycerides and low LDL concentrations are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (Steinberger et al., 1995; Hokanson and Austin, 1996). Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the major cause of illness and death in both developing and developed countries, and the major responsible factors for CVD are the higher levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDS) and lower levels of the high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) present in blood plasma (Fruchart and Duriez, 2002). Higher HDL levels in plasma impart defense against CVDs (Gordon et al., 1989). Shift in the body measurements like BMI and waist circumference is directly linked with the metabolic conditions e.g., type 2 diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia and hyperinsulinemia (Banu et al., 2014; Diwan et al., 2012; Nakao et al., 2002). Healthy life style and dietary measures can cure many cardiovascular pathologies, inflammatory disorders and obesity (Bravata et al., 2003; De Lorgeril et al., 1999; Layman et al., 2003). Obesity is a condition which is a direct result of modern nutrition and life style which are main sources of recent degenerative diseases. It can be measured by a formula known as body mass index (BMI). It is caused by a number of reasons which include disturbed substrate oxidation, higher intake of fats, high energy density in food intake and low energy utilization (Taubes, 2001). In the south Asian populations the trend continues with high triglycerides and low HDL levels in different ethnic groups (McKeigue et al., 1985; McKeigue and Marmot, 1988; Miller et al., 1988).

The biosynthesis of nanoparticles was done

The biosynthesis of nanoparticles was done using microbial strains, enzymes and metabolites (Ali et al., 2011), plant extracts (Harekrishna et al., 2009; Nagati et al., 2012, 2013), and biodegradable products (Avnesh et al., 2010). Biosynthesis of nanoparticles by using C. papaya fruit and leaf extract had been previously reported to be having antimicrobial properties (Jain et al., 2009; Ratika and Vedpriya, 2013). In the present study C. papaya silver nanoparticles (CPL-AgNPs) were biosynthesized using the biological approach. CPL-AgNPs were synthesized by mixing AgNO3 solution with extract of C. papaya leaves. The chemical reaction involved in the formation of nanoparticles is the reduction of silver ions by the aqueous extract. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by using UV–visible spectrophotometer, electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) EDX, FTIR, X-ray diffraction and evaluated for antibactericidal properties using bacterial strains.

Materials and methods

Results
The UV myd88 pathway spectrometric analysis of CPL-AgNPs showed absorbance spectra at 470nm suggesting bioreduction of silver nitrate into silver nanoparticles (Fig. 2). The SEM and TEM analyses showed the particle size between 50 and 200nm and average size of silver nanoparticles between 5 and 40nm with a spherical morphology (Figs. 4–6Fig. 3). The quantitative analysis using EDX showed high silver content of 41%. The spectrum also showed the presence of oxygen and silicon of 46.11% and 7.11%, respectively (Fig. 5). The FTIR analysis spectrum showed sharp absorbance between 500 and 4000cms−1. There are other peaks in the spectrum at 633, 869, 925, 976, 1181, 1315, 1406, 1640, 1782, 2103 and 3359 which could be the esters, ethers, carbonyl (polyol’s) or aromatic compounds (). XRD data show diffraction peaks at 2θ=38.2°, 44.4°, 64.6°, 77.5°, and can be indexed to (111), (200), (220), (311), and (222) planes of pure silver ions indicating the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (Fig. myd88 pathway 7).
The results obtained from the disc diffusion method showed the effect of CPL-AgNPs, CPL extract and ampicillin on both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains. The zone of inhibitions measured for different bacterial strains were 7mm and 9mm for M. luteus at 5μg/mL and 10μg/mL of CPL-AgNPs, and in case with CPL extract and ampicillin alone it was 5mm and 16mm, respectively. S. aureus showed 8mm and 11mm upon treatment with 5μg/mL and 10μg/mL of CPL-AgNPs, and in case with CPL extract and ampicillin alone it was 6mm and 14mm, respectively. For B. subtilis it was observed to be 7mm and 11mm for CPL-AgNPs, and for CPL extract and ampicillin alone it was 5mm and 14mm. E. coli showed zone of inhibition of 7mm and 13mm when treated with 5μg/mL and 10μg/mL of CPL-AgNPs and with CPL extract and ampicillin it gave 5mm and 13mm. P. putida showed 6mm and 10mm with 5μg/mL and 10μg/mL of CPL-AgNPs and with CPL extract and ampicillin it was observed to be 4mm and 15mm. K. pneumoniae showed zone of inhibition of 7mm and 9mm when treated with 5μg/mL and 10μg/mL of CPL-AgNPs and with CPL extract and ampicillin it was 4mm and 14mm. The concentration of CPL extract (5μg/mL) and ampicillin (10μg/mL) was kept constant throughout the experiment (Fig. 8); Table 1. The turbidimetry analysis of CPL-AgNPs showed good antibacterial activity with MIC and MBC of 100μg/mL for S. aureus and E. coli; B. subtilis and K. pneunominae showed MIC and MBC of 50μg/mL; P. putida and M. luteus were more sensitive to the extract with MIC and MBC of 25μg/mL.

Discussion
Nanomaterials had proven to be the efficient mode of drug delivery in modern science (Arokiyaraj et al., 2014). The utilization of medicinal plant materials, microbes, enzymes for synthesis of nanoparticles has been revolutionized in recent years and could serve as alternative for antibiotics (Palanisamy et al., 2014). In the present study, the CPL-AgNPs showed particle size ranging in between 5 and 200nm, which may confer the ability to penetrate the cells/microbes and execute the bactericidal property. The mechanism of action of silver nanoparticles is ambiguous in microorganism (Kim et al. 2007,2011).

pde inhibitors br Introduction The dynamics of shallow water waves that

Introduction
The dynamics of shallow water waves, that are seen in various places like sea beaches, lakes and rivers, are governed by the Boussinesq Equation (BE). The Korteweg–deVries (KdV) equation that models shallow water waves is definitely very well known. However, the BE gives a much better approximation to such waves. There are two forms of the BE that will be addressed in this paper, and both are with cubic nonlinearity [1]. The soliton solutions will be obtained for these equations. These solutions will be extremely useful in carrying out further analysis in the context of shallow water waves that arises in the context of oceanography.
There are various mathematical techniques to solve these forms of BE. Some of the commonly used techniques are; the variational iteration method, the semi-inverse variational principle, the /-expansion method, the exp-function method, the Riccati equation approach, Fan’s -expansion, and many others [2–12]. In this paper, the tanh method will be used for obtaining the closed form solution of some variants of the BE equation.
The traveling wave solutions will also be used to integrate the nonlinearly coupled BE. These analytical solutions are supported by numerical simulations. The symbolic calculations are made using the symbolic programming package, Mathematica, version 8.0 [13].

Outline of tanh method
The method is applied to find out exact solutions of nonlinear differential equations: where is a polynomial of the variable and its derivatives. Considering the transformation variable, , so that , we obtain the following relations: Thus, Eq. (1) reduces to the Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE): With being another polynomial. Eq. (3) is then integrated and the pde inhibitors constant is chosen to be zero, in view of the localized solutions. However, the nonzero constants can be used and handled as well [14]. Now, finding the traveling wave solution to Eq. (1) is equivalent to obtaining the solution to the reduced ODE given by Eq. (3).
We introduce the tanh method in a similar manner to that undertaken earlier in [15–17]. The tanh method is based on a priori assumption that the traveling wave solutions can be expressed in terms of the tanh function. For the tanh method, the first step is to introduce the new independent variable: that transforms the differential operators as follows: The next step is that the solution is expressed in the form: where the parameter, , can be found by balancing the highest-order linear term with the nonlinear terms in Eq. (2), and are to be determined. Substituting Eq. (5) into Eq. (2) will yield a set of algebraic equations for because all coefficients of have to vanish. From these relations, can be obtained. Having determined these parameters, knowing that are positive integers, in most cases, and using Eq. (5), we obtain analytic solutions, , in a closed form. The tanh method seems to be a powerful tool in dealing with nonlinear physical models.
It needs to be noted that the tanh method is not a unique approach to carrying out the integration of these nonlinear evolution equations. There are several other powerful mathematical tools of integration that can be very easily and effectively applied to integrate these NLEEs. Some of these well studied approaches are; the -expansion method, the exp-function approach, the homotopy perturbation method, the variational iteration method, and the Adomian decomposition method. One of the most powerful methods is the Lie symmetry approach, which yields a lot of additional information in addition to retrieving solutions to these NLEEs, such as obtaining the conservation laws of these equations [18]. This paper will, however, focus on the tanh approach and the traveling wave solutions.

Examples

Travelling waves
In this section, the coupled BE, given by Eqs. (16)–(17), will be revisited in a more general setting. This coupled system will be rewritten in the form: Applying the tanh method to the system (30)–(31) does not give us a solution. Therefore, we can conclude that there is no solution of the form (18)–(19) in this case.

Cardiologists play an important role in assisting cardiac patients who

Cardiologists play an important role in assisting cardiac patients who experience sexual dysfunction to learn how to live with their disability and return to normal sexual activity. Therefore, it more info here is necessary that cardiologists assess these problems in this group of patients. Lack of such provision could have long-term side effects for patients and their partners. To the best of our knowledge, no study has assessed cardiologists\’ attitudes toward and performance of discussing sexual issues in Iran. Only one study was carried out in Kerman, Iran, and it concerned the knowledge and attitude of nurses toward sexual activity. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the attitudes and performance of cardiologists concerning sexual issues in patients with CVD; thus, we examined whether cardiologists in Iran assessed sexual problems with their patients and, if not, their reasons for not doing so.

Methods

Results

Discussion
This study is the first nationwide survey in Iran to investigate the attitudes and performance of cardiologists about sexual issues in patients with CVD. The key findings of this study conclude there is a gap between cardiologists\’ attitudes and their actual practices. Most cardiologists agreed with the importance of sexual issues for cardiac patients, but they did not routinely discuss sexuality with their patients. Previous studies have found that most health care providers and cardiologists do not routinely ask patients about sexual problems.
Almost half the participants reported that if patients ask questions about their sexual activities, they regularly answer them (passive performance); the survey findings indicated that the cardiologists believed the conversation about sexual issues should be initiated by the patients. This finding is similar to the study conducted by Nicolai et al, which indicated that more than half the respondents expected the patient to take the lead in discussing sexual function. In a survey by Vassiliadou et al, cardiologists stated that patients much more often initiated discussion about difficulties with sexual performance.
Most cardiologists accepted their responsibility for addressing the sexual issues of patients with CVD, but only one third of them were confident about their knowledge and skills. In the survey by Nicolai et al, approximately one third of cardiologists accepted their responsibility to discuss sexual matters with their patients and most stated Induced mutation had “some” or “a lot” of the necessary knowledge to discuss sexual problems with their patients. In these two studies, cardiologists did not routinely discuss sexuality with their patients. The factors indicated to cause cardiologists\’ lack of routine in assessing sexual health were somewhat different; for example, almost half the Dutch cardiologists indicated the absence of an opening to raise the subject as an important reason not to raise it, but patient discomfort and cultural and religious reasons appeared to be important obstacles for most participants in the present study.
Similar to the results reported by Nicolai et al, these findings are alarming because, since 1999, several recommendations for the clinical management of sexual function in men and women with CVD have been provided to help physicians communicate with patients about sexual activity.
Several factors can be effective in cardiologists\’ lack of routine in assessing sexual issues. The first assumption is that they have insufficient knowledge about sexual issues of patients with CVD. We did not examine the knowledge of cardiologists about the sexual issues of patients with CVD, but approximately two thirds of cardiologists stated they did not have enough knowledge and skills. Because most cardiologists stated that the sexual issues of patients is important from their own viewpoint and that most of them are motivated to receive additional training, there seems to be a need for more knowledge and training to help them understand how to conduct a sexual assessment and offer counseling. In the study about physicians\’ knowledge of ED in Saudi Arabia, the cardiologists scored lower marks than urologists, andrologists, and general surgeons. Another study conducted on Dutch cardiologists indicated that most cardiologists had insufficient knowledge about the effects of cardiovascular drugs on sexual function. A study about cardiologists\’ knowledge and opinions concerning their patients\’ sexual activity indicated that Greek cardiologists tend to underestimate the scale of the problem and are poorly informed about all aspects of cardiac patients\’ sexual issues. One comprehensive review about the state of sexual health education worldwide has shown that sexual medicine education is inadequate in most centers; therefore, cardiologists might need more knowledge and specific practical training to conduct the sexual assessment and counseling of cardiac patients.

There are few studies documenting the bilateral occurrence of impacted

There are few studies documenting the bilateral occurrence of impacted third molars. Dachi and Howell reported almost equal frequencies of unilateral and bilateral impactions while our results showed that 70% of cases presented with bilateral impaction in one or both arches. In addition, approximately 69% of mandibular bilateral impactions presented with same classification of angular position and level of eruption compared with 51% reported by Quek et al.

Conclusion

Conflict of interest

Acknowledgements

Introduction
Stewart and Felicetti define learning styles as those educational conditions under which a student is most likely to learn. Efficient transfer of information from the teacher to the student can be complicated by mismatches between teaching strategy and students’ learning styles. Further, Kaplan and Kies pointed out that learning rho kinase inhibitor is one of the sources of differences in the student’s performance. Therefore it is important that dental educators need to understand how students learn and use the appropriate teaching methods in order to improve the quality of learning experience and to match students’ preferences.
There are several methods available to measure learning styles. One of the most frequently used methods is VARK questionnaire developed by Neil Fleming. He described four sensory modalities: Visual (V), Aural (A), Reading/Writing (R) and Kinesthetic (K), (VARK). Visual learners learn through seeing pictures, graphs, videos, and graphics. Aural learners learn by listening to lectures, discussions, and speaking. Reading/Writing learners learn through reading the text and making their own notes whereas kinesthetic learners learn through touching and experiences that emphasize doing, physical involvement, and manipulation of objects.
Students’ learning styles can be affected by several factors such as gender, age, academic achievement, and culture. Few studies have been conducted to investigate learning preferences of dental students in Saudi Arabia. ALQahtani and Al-Gahtani found that the Diverging learning style was the dominant style among Saudi dental students and interns based on Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory. While the students preferred the Assimilating style during their early preclinical years, they preferred the Diverging style during their later clinical years. On the other hand, Al-Saud used VARK questionnaire to determine the preferred mode of learning among Saudi first-year dental students. She reported that more than half of the students were found to have multimodal learning preferences. The most common single learning preferences were aural (20%) followed by kinesthetic (15.2%). The purpose of this descriptive study was to provide further information about the learning styles of undergraduate dental students, from first to final years, in male campus at King Saud University using the Arabic version of the VARK questionnaire.

Subjects and methods
Each year representative was contacted via email and asked to distribute a link for survey to their colleagues. Students can choose more than one option for identifying the preferences for multiple learning styles. The survey results from each student were collected anonymously on SurveyMonkey (www.surveymonkey.com).
The distributions of the VARK preferences were calculated according to the guidelines given in the VARK website. To determine the percentage of students for each VARK modality (V, A, R, and K) and for all possible combinations of modalities (e.g., VA, VRK, etc.), the number of students who preferred each learning style modality was divided by the total number of students.

Results
Fig. 1 shows the prevalence of the different learning preferences. The dominant learning preference among dental students was VARK learning preference (22.7%), followed by A and K as single learning preferences (14.5% for each). This was followed by a combination of V, A, and K learning preference (8.6%).

br Conclusion In the present scenario the search for

Conclusion
In the present scenario the search for new bioactive compounds has extended from medical field to agricultural field for crop protection and enhancing yields. The present study publicises that the saline stressed habitats are potential reservoirs for bioactive actinobacteria. In vitro antagonistic assay with our antagonist strain uncovers its potential to be utilised as biocontrol mechanism against phytopathogenic fungi M. phaseolina. The halotolerant Streptomyces strain K20 even possesses plant growth promotion potential by producing IAA, siderophore and ammonia and solubilises phosphate. Thus, directly as well as indirectly it can promote plant growth. So, it may be concluded that the strain S. aureofaciens K20 could be utilised for biocontrol management (M. phaseolina) programme in saline stressed soils.

Acknowledgements
The first author expresses her sincere gratitude to University Grants Commission (UGC), New Delhi, India for providing financial support in the form of fellowship.

Introduction
The elderly purchase Bafetinib is increasing globally, resulting in higher healthcare costs and demand for services (Klarin et al., 2005; Fick et al., 2001). The estimation of current statistics suggests that 2.9% of the affected elderly persons were more than 65years of age in the Saudi population (WHO, 2011). One of the challenges in the provision of healthcare to elderly persons is inappropriate prescriptions, drug-related is inappropriate prescriptions and complications. The earlier studies from the western population indicates 12% and 23% of more than 65years of age consumed at least 10 medications at any given time, and five prescription drugs monthly (Kaufman et al., 2002). One of the study from European population showed that the older people in community-dwelling received ∼2.8–5.0 drugs (Brekke et al., 2008). An earlier study in the 90s concluded the person who receives two, four and seven drugs experienced with 13%, 38% and 82% risk (Goldberg et al., 1996). Duplicate use of drugs within the same class is common and often unrecognised. The side effects of drugs are leading to polypharmacy, coupled with continued prescription of cascades (example; prescribing levodopa for parkinsonian symptoms resulting from neuroleptic drugs side effects) (Col et al., 1990). Older individuals are at a higher risk of developing drug-related adverse events because of age-related changes and reduced organ reserve capacity (Byles et al., 2003). Furthermore, age-related changes in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and coexisting diverse underlying medical morbidities contribute towards serious adverse drug interaction and toxicity (Handler et al., 2006). Polypharmacy, non-prescription drugs and inadequate treatment adherence purchase Bafetinib carry a substantially high risk for morbidity and mortality. Hospital admission, functional impairment, falls, cognitive decline, drug toxicity and poor quality of life are common, due to inappropriate prescription of medication (Williams, 2002; Chin et al., 1999; Buajordet et al., 2001). In total, 5% of total hospitalisations are reportedly drug-related; 17% thereof are of older adults (Lazarou et al., 1998).
Drug-related problems are common in primary care (Doshi et al., 2005) and up to 35% of older patients attending outpatient clinics develop preventable adverse drug interactions (Mallet et al., 2007). Prescription of inappropriate medications is an important preventable drug-related problem (Beijer and de Blaey, 2002). A potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) refers to prescription of drugs carrying risks outweighing the expected clinical benefits, especially when there is evidence for an equally or more effective and safer alternative medication (Spinewine et al., 2007; Chang and Chan, 2010). There are few international evidence-based studies on a comprehensive clinical approach comprising appropriate drug prescription for elderly people. Beers’ criteria, published in 1991 and updated in 2003 and 2012 (Beers et al., 1991; Fick and Semla, 2012; Fick et al., 2003), are the most widely used tool for appropriate prescription and monitoring of elderly persons in ambulatory settings and long-term facilities. Recently, Beers’ criteria updated PIMs to include up to 53 drugs in three classes, which may carry negative outcomes and limited effectiveness for elderly people. The criteria had been well described and emphasised, to improve the care of older adults and reduce exposure to PIMs (Fick and Semla, 2012). PIMs fall under three major therapeutic classes, organs and systems, namely: PIMs and classes to avoid in older adults, PIMs and classes to avoid in older adults with certain diseases and syndromes and medications to be used with caution in older adults.

br Introduction Placement of dental implants in

Introduction
Placement of dental implants in the anterior mandible is a routine procedure and considered to be safe. The sublingual hematoma complication that can occur during placement of mandibular endosseous dental implants is potentially life-threatening (Kalpidis and Setayesh, 2004). The growing of knowledge of the causes of that complication is an important aspect of treatment planning. General practitioners and specialists do not pay attention to discuss this complication with patients before surgery. Upper airway obstruction, severe bleeding and formation of a hematoma in the floor of the p2y receptor are the result of vascular trauma (Hofschneider et al., 1999). This vascular complication is attributed to unwanted perforations in the lingual cortical plate (Kalpidis and Setayesh, 2004; Hofschneider et al., 1999).
Formation of hemorrhage can easily spread in the loose tissues of the floor of the mouth, the sublingual area and the space between the lingual muscles. Swelling can occur rapidly and can cause acute airway obstruction, which may require intubation or an emergency tracheostomy (Kalpidis and Setayesh, 2004; Hofschneider et al., 1999; Krenkel et al., 1985). The mandible region from the lingual side, is a very important vascular area. It is supplied by the sublingual branch of the lingual artery which anastomoses with the submental artery, a branch of the facial artery, and the incisive arteries, branches of the inferior alveolar artery (Kalpidis and Setayesh, 2004; Hofschneider et al., 1999; Krenkel et al., 1985). This rich anastomosing blood supply plexus lies very close to the interforaminal lingual cortical plate of the mandible and severe hemorrhage from this region has been reported as a complication of implant placement and other surgical procedures (Kalpidis and Setayesh, 2004; Hofschneider et al., 1999; Dubois et al., 2010). Different anatomical studies reported that many unnamed accessory foramina are present in the mandible, especially on the lingual side (Hofschneider et al., 1999; McDonnel et al., 1994; Loukas et al., 2008). The anatomical description of the median, situated in the midline of the mandible (McDonnel et al., 1994) and lateral lingual foramina, situated between the canine and the premolar region (Kalpidis and Setayesh, 2004) and their linked canals contents is still a matter of debate. Different descriptions about canal content and different terminology to locate the mandible lingual foramen have been reported in the literature (Kalpidis and Setayesh, 2004; Hofschneider et al., 1999; Liang et al., 2006). The purpose of this review is to identify the sublingual hematoma complication that have been reported in conjunction with dental implant treatment in the mandible anterior area and provide data regarding its frequency.

Materials and methods
A literature search using MEDLINE, accessed via the National Library of Medicine PubMed interface (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.eleen.top/pubmed), searching for articles relating to the floor of mouth hemorrhage and life-threatening airway obstruction during immediate dental implant placement in the anterior mandible written in English. The following search string was used: floor of mouth hemorrhage, implant placement in the anterior mandible, complication of dental implant. All the reported papers in the literature were reviewed (1986–2010). We also used the “Related Articles” feature of PubMed to identify further references of interest within the primary search. These references were obtained, and from their bibliographies, pertinent secondary references were also identified and acquired. The process was repeated until no further new articles could be identified. The abstracted literature was reviewed.

Results
Our search has identified 19 studies that were written in the literature. No randomized controlled trials have been identified in the literature to evaluate the incidence of that life threatening complication and to give a clear guideline to avoid that complication, therefore, all of these studies which reported that complication were case series (Table 1).

br Results The descriptive statistics and statistical comparisons

Results
The descriptive statistics and statistical comparisons of angular and linear craniofacial measurements are shown in Table 3. Statistically significant differences were found between Group I and Group II in 10 out of 27 measurements. SNA (p<0.01), ANB (p<0.01), A to N perp (p<0.05), convexity (p<0.05), IMPA (p<0.05) and overbite (p<0.05) measurements were found to have smaller values; but SN-MP (p<0.01) and PP-GoGn (p<0.01) from angular measurements, and S-N (p<0.05) and anterior facial height (p<0.05) from linear measurements were higher in Group I than Group II. Thus, this part of the null leukotriene receptor antagonists was rejected.
Descriptive data for the variables that described head posture and hyoid bone are given for the MB and control group in Table 4. According to the statistical analysis, the OPT-PP measurement was significantly higher and the Vert-PP measurement was lower in MB patients compared to the controls (p<0.05 for both). No significant difference was found for the other head posture measurements. According to the results regarding head posture, the null hypothesis regarding head posture was also rejected.
Discussion
MB alters the balance between the intra-oral and extra-oral neuromuscular regions. MB changes the muscle forces exerted by the tongue, cheeks, and lips upon the maxillary arch (Cuccia et al., 2008). In MB patients, it is generally expected that a narrow maxillary arch with a high palatal vault will be found, associated with a posterior cross bite, a Class II or III dental malocclusion, and an anterior open bite (Rubin, 1980; Hartsook, 1946; Lessa et al., 2005; Peltomäki, 2007; Linder-Aronson, 1970). The head is generally extended to compensate for the smaller airway space. It is important to notice that head extension increases the sagittal extension of the pharyngeal airway in patients with unobstructed airways and normal breathing function (Hellsing, 1989), but this compensatory mechanism is insufficient to alter the breathing pattern (Huggare and Laine-Alava, 1997).
It has been recognized that mandibular posture as it relates to the craniomaxillary complex is influenced by both proprioceptive intra- and extra-oral forces. Accommodative posture influences the load in several joints of the craniovertebral region, which results in unfavorable dentofacial and craniofacial growth (Darnell, 1983). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the craniofacial morphology, hyoid bone position and head posture in MB and NB patients.
In this study, respiration types were evaluated according to the study of Cuccia et al. (2008), but for an objective evaluation of breathing mode, rhinomanometry was used to determine the degree of MB (Linder-Aronson, 1970). Furthermore, clinical evaluations might be insufficient and the degree of nasorespiratory obstruction may need to be identified and quantified (Vig, 1998).
When the maxillary sagittal skeletal relationship is evaluated, reduced SNA and A to N perp measurements in MB patients were determined. These values indicate a tendency for maxillary deficiency, which was consistent with the findings of Seto et al. (2001). However, Lowe et al. (1996) reported that the maxillary position did not show any major difference in MB patients compared to the control subjects. However, they also found that the maxillary skeletal position is retrognathic in the anteroposterior direction.
In the current study, we found that vertical measurements (PP-GoGn, SN-MP and anterior facial height) were higher in MB patients, which was consistent with the findings of previous studies (Hellsing et al., 1987). Patients in the MB group are likely to present with increased mandibular inclination, characterized by decreased posterior facial height and increased lower anterior facial height. These measurements suggest that respiratory function influences craniofacial development (Lessa et al., 2005). These skeletal measurements indicate a tendency for MB children to present with a dolichocephalic skeletal pattern. Frasson et al. (2006) found no difference between NB and MB patients when facial vertical patterns were assessed. Their study included an assessment of the FMA, SN-GoGn and Y-axis angle values, and they observed no significant alterations between the MB and NB groups in terms of posterior facial height measurements. We found higher values for SN-MP, PP-GoGn and anterior facial height (N-Me) in MB patients but no significant differences in posterior facial height between groups.