Pearson s correlation analysis was conducted Table and

Pearson\’s correlation analysis was conducted (Table 3), and showed a positive significant correlation of knowledge with attitude (r = 0.399, p = 0.000) and a negative significant correlation with practices (r = −0.363, p = 0.000). Correlation of attitude with practices was not statistically significant (r = −0.035, p = 0.582).
To assess correlation between various sociodemographic variables with knowledge, attitude, and practices, the Chi-square test was used (Table 4). A significant correlation of age with attitude (χ2 = 10.734, p = 0.030) and practices (χ2 = 12.984, p = 0.011) was observed. Marital status was significantly correlated with knowledge (χ2 = 29.369, p = 0.000), attitude (χ2 = 29.023, p = 0.000), and practices (χ2 = 13.648, p = 0.009).

Discussion
Musculoskeletal pain is a major problem among dental personnel that affects efficiency and job satisfaction; the prime reason for this ampa receptors may be attributed to inappropriate workplace ergonomics. In the Indian context where numbers of practicing dentists are steadily increasing, there is a continued increase in prevalence of musculoskeletal problems. The ergonomically incorrect and correct positions to work are illustrated in Figs. 2 and 3, respectively. Ergonomics has been always neglected, from both a knowledge and practice point of view during clinical work. In addition, ergonomics is not part of the syllabus proposed by the DCI for both undergraduates and postgraduates [13]; as a result, the knowledge of ergonomics is disseminated using informal means only. This necessitates assessment of awareness, attitude, and practices toward ergonomic principles during routine dental procedures among dental professionals at different academic positions; i.e., undergraduates, house surgeons, postgraduates, and faculty members.
Results ampa receptors showed that knowledge scores were 52%, which are similar to results found in a study conducted by Garbin et al [19], in which the knowledge of ergonomics was satisfactory among 55.1% of dental students; Bârlean et al [20] observed respondents\’ self-perceived knowledge about correct working posture to be 52.6%. Whereas in the Indian context, the study conducted by Madaan and Chaudhari [21] regarding overall awareness of ergonomics in dentistry among 3rd- and 4th-year students and house surgeons, showed much lower scores (19%) compared to the current study. The level of attitude found in the current study is 75%, which is a good reflection of acceptability and willingness to adopt the ergonomic principles in routine dental practice by the study participants.
Compared to attitude scores, the practice scores in the current study were low, i.e., 55%, but are slightly higher than the 38.6% found in the study conducted by Mailoa and Rovani [22]. The slightly higher scores of practices for ergonomics than knowledge during routine dental practice is probably because of informal training and years of clinical experience leading to self-acquired optimal neutral posture.
Among the five different academic positions, the overall mean knowledge was highest among private practitioners (Table 3), which can be explained based on the study results of Leggat and Smith [23] and Akesson et al [24]; that years of clinical experience and the various musculoskeletal disorders necessitates them to revise and update their knowledge regarding ergonomics related to clinical dentistry. The probable reason for the high positive attitude toward ergonomics among postgraduates compared to other academic positions could be because of the likelihood of being affected by various musculoskeletal disorders during undergraduate clinical working periods. Such high positive attitude not only shows room for infusion of awareness but also willingness to put Laurentia awareness into practice (Table 3). Among all academic groups, house surgeons showed highest scores of practices, which could be because of the strict supervision of faculty where enough emphasis is placed on ensuring that house surgeons follow ergonomic principles and guidelines during clinical procedures.

Pearson s correlation analysis was conducted Table and

Pearson\’s correlation analysis was conducted (Table 3), and showed a positive significant correlation of knowledge with attitude (r = 0.399, p = 0.000) and a negative significant correlation with practices (r = −0.363, p = 0.000). Correlation of attitude with practices was not statistically significant (r = −0.035, p = 0.582).
To assess correlation between various sociodemographic variables with knowledge, attitude, and practices, the Chi-square test was used (Table 4). A significant correlation of age with attitude (χ2 = 10.734, p = 0.030) and practices (χ2 = 12.984, p = 0.011) was observed. Marital status was significantly correlated with knowledge (χ2 = 29.369, p = 0.000), attitude (χ2 = 29.023, p = 0.000), and practices (χ2 = 13.648, p = 0.009).

Discussion
Musculoskeletal pain is a major problem among dental personnel that affects efficiency and job satisfaction; the prime reason for this ampa receptors may be attributed to inappropriate workplace ergonomics. In the Indian context where numbers of practicing dentists are steadily increasing, there is a continued increase in prevalence of musculoskeletal problems. The ergonomically incorrect and correct positions to work are illustrated in Figs. 2 and 3, respectively. Ergonomics has been always neglected, from both a knowledge and practice point of view during clinical work. In addition, ergonomics is not part of the syllabus proposed by the DCI for both undergraduates and postgraduates [13]; as a result, the knowledge of ergonomics is disseminated using informal means only. This necessitates assessment of awareness, attitude, and practices toward ergonomic principles during routine dental procedures among dental professionals at different academic positions; i.e., undergraduates, house surgeons, postgraduates, and faculty members.
Results ampa receptors showed that knowledge scores were 52%, which are similar to results found in a study conducted by Garbin et al [19], in which the knowledge of ergonomics was satisfactory among 55.1% of dental students; Bârlean et al [20] observed respondents\’ self-perceived knowledge about correct working posture to be 52.6%. Whereas in the Indian context, the study conducted by Madaan and Chaudhari [21] regarding overall awareness of ergonomics in dentistry among 3rd- and 4th-year students and house surgeons, showed much lower scores (19%) compared to the current study. The level of attitude found in the current study is 75%, which is a good reflection of acceptability and willingness to adopt the ergonomic principles in routine dental practice by the study participants.
Compared to attitude scores, the practice scores in the current study were low, i.e., 55%, but are slightly higher than the 38.6% found in the study conducted by Mailoa and Rovani [22]. The slightly higher scores of practices for ergonomics than knowledge during routine dental practice is probably because of informal training and years of clinical experience leading to self-acquired optimal neutral posture.
Among the five different academic positions, the overall mean knowledge was highest among private practitioners (Table 3), which can be explained based on the study results of Leggat and Smith [23] and Akesson et al [24]; that years of clinical experience and the various musculoskeletal disorders necessitates them to revise and update their knowledge regarding ergonomics related to clinical dentistry. The probable reason for the high positive attitude toward ergonomics among postgraduates compared to other academic positions could be because of the likelihood of being affected by various musculoskeletal disorders during undergraduate clinical working periods. Such high positive attitude not only shows room for infusion of awareness but also willingness to put Laurentia awareness into practice (Table 3). Among all academic groups, house surgeons showed highest scores of practices, which could be because of the strict supervision of faculty where enough emphasis is placed on ensuring that house surgeons follow ergonomic principles and guidelines during clinical procedures.

For overdense plasma a the

For overdense plasma (a) the meniscus is convex and a considerable number of ions are lost as they hit the extraction electrodes. In the case of intermediate plasma density (b) the beam is better matched to the extraction which makes this shape of plasma meniscus the most attractive regarding the extraction design. Finally, for underdense plasma (c) the meniscus is concave and although the beam is not lost at the extraction region, the space charge of the beam will create significant problems (beam blowup). In order to achieve adequate beam extraction conditions (optimal shape of the plasma meniscus), the plasma properties of the FRAX597 Supplier source including plasma density, plasma potential and ion temperature, have to be taken into consideration when designing the extraction systems. The shape of the plasma meniscus is directly related to the plasma density while plasma potential and ion temperature affect the longitudinal and transversal momentum spread of the extracted ion beam. The maximum current density j in mA/cm2 that can possibly be expected for ion beams accelerated by an electric field is obtained under space-charge limited conditions and follows the Child-Langmuir law (planar plasma meniscus is assumed) [52]:where Q is the charge state of the ion beam, M the ion mass (amu), V the acceleration voltage (kV) and d is the extraction gap in cm.

Ion focusing
The field of ion optics is based on the analogy between geometrical light optics and the motion of charged particles in electromagnetic fields. Electrostatic lenses are widely used in charged particle optics [49]. They are used in focused ion beam systems, where they are more effective than magnetic lenses. The aim is to concentrate as many particles as possible in as small a volume as possible. The optical properties of electrostatic lenses are fixed by the voltage ratios. The focusing of charged particles with an electrostatic field could be obtained by devices that consist of a sequence of the accelerating electrodes with cylindrical symmetry has lens-like properties.

Conclusion
In the present work, different types of ion sources with their applications have discussed and reviewed. In all types of ion sources, the ions are produced by various types of gas discharge including electron collisions with gas particles. The general parameters are a source of electrons, a small region of relatively high gas pressure, and an electric field to accelerate the electrons in order to produce an intense gas discharge (plasma) with a relatively high electron and ions density and some mechanism for extracting a collimated parallel high current ion beam. Types of gas discharges and different ionization processes are described. Ion extraction region has been studied with its principle. Ion beam extraction from different types of ion sources is influenced by many parameters such as geometry, applied extraction voltage, magnetic flux density, space charge of the extracted beam and finally the shape of the plasma boundary. Simulation for the extraction region of the accel–decel extraction systems for a singly charged ion trajectories has been done for different types of emittance diagrams. The ion beam trajectories for different shapes of the plasma meniscus were simulated and optimized. Theory of ion focusing for electrostatic lens systems is given and some examples for the two and three cylinder lens systems are given. This study has been done with the aid of SIMION computer program [56]. Design parameters for the lens system were identified as variable parameters in the presence of space charge. These parameters are the separation between each electrode of the lens, the aperture diameter of the outer electrodes of the lens system, the aperture diameter of the intermediate electrode, the focusing points at different distances for singly charged ion trajectories, the applied voltage to the intermediate electrode of the einzel lens system and also to the second electrode for the two lens system and influence of space charge on beam quality and also study of the influence of the mass for the different elements has been investigated.

Seg n Norton y Olds se

Según Norton y Olds (2001) se tiene en cuenta un número grande de factores para la búsqueda de deportistas con una morfología cada vez más proporcionada. Éstos incluyen globalización y recrudecimiento internacional, grandes incentivos financieros y sociales y el uso de métodos de entrenamiento especiales y estímulos para el crecimiento artificial.
Teniendo en cuenta estos señalamientos, algunos autores (; Norton y Olds 2001) refieren nicotinic acetylcholine receptor la existencia de cuatro grupos que definen la evolución del tamaño corporal en el deportista (cuadro 1).
El término “optimización morfológica” se refiere a la culminación de una forma y composición corporal después de haber atravesado un proceso de selección natural a través de generaciones sucesivas, como por la adaptación a las demandas del entrenamiento de la generación actual (Norton y Olds 2001; Lozovina y Lozovina 2008).
El hecho es que el individuo es seleccionado a partir de una población potencial, que es un grupo de individuos con posibilidades de ser seleccionados por estar en el límite de edad, por tener un estatus socioeconómico o por tener la ubicación geográfica apropiada ()
Un ejemplo de esto es la población de jugadores de las ligas mayores del beisbol americano que se ha incrementado con jugadores dominicanos, latinos, judíos y afroamericanos que provienen de una población potencial en donde se han encontrado muchos sujetos en la categoría evolutiva de optimización con límite superior abierto que hoy en día son sluggers de ese deporte (Wendel 2003; Breckenridge y Goldsmith 2009).
Llegado a este punto habría que definir el término de “presión selectiva”, el cual, según , se refiere a variables antropométricas que tienen un papel fundamental para el alcance del éxito deportivo.
Por otra parte, Carvajal (2011) refirió que la presión selectiva en el deporte son todos aquellos factores sociales y ambientales que actúan para garantizar que el individuo seleccionado, a partir de la población potencial, posea atributos morfológicos que le ofrezcan un mayor valor adaptativo para el alcance de un mejor desempeño deportivo en generaciones sucesivas.
Este último concepto tiene su punto de partida en el The Cambridge Dictionary of Human Biology and Evolution que en todo momento hace referencia al término como la causa generadora de la adaptación ().
La evolución morfológica en el deportista tiene sus límites que están fijados por la genética como toda población; pero éstos son relativos y dependen del área geográfica en estudio, del potencial genético local, etc.
Países con promedio de estatura elevada, como Holanda, Rusia, Estados Unidos, que han llegado a Intercistronic region dominar el voleibol masculino son referencia de todos aquellos que quieren desarrollar este deporte y a la vez se constituyen como la principal presión selectiva o meta a alcanzar, o sea, la presión selectiva aquí sería la estatura de los países con más desarrollo en este deporte. Se sabe que en el voleibol tener una estatura alta contribuye al desempeño de manera significativa y Cuba, en el voleibol masculino, ha mostrado resultados competitivos y morfológicos que han ido evolucionando al mismo tiempo que la estatura de los países dominantes en este deporte (cuadro 2).
El cuadro 2 muestra que el cambio estatural de las selecciones cubanas de voleibol ha sido brusco desde la década de 1970 hasta la actualidad, sin embargo, la nicotinic acetylcholine receptor estatura de los mayores exponentes del voleibol mundial se ha mantenido prácticamente constante en este periodo. La estatura que Cuba poseía cuando fue bronce olímpico en los Juegos de Montreal 1976 y la que poseía cuando fue campeón panamericano en los Juegos de Indianápolis 1987 dista mucho de los 197.6cm que tenía el equipo participante en la Liga Mundial de Voleibol de 2006 ().
En el voleibol femenino no ha ocurrido lo mismo, ya que desde 1978 y hasta el año 2004 Cuba mostró un desempeño muy estable que la llevó a obtener tres campeonatos mundiales (1978, 1994 y 1998) y cuatro medallas olímpicas consecutivas: tres de oro en Barcelona 1992, Atlanta 1996 y Sidney 2000 y una de bronce, debido al cambio generacional, en Atenas 2004 (Carvajal 2005).

br Enfermedades materiales y espirituales en la

Enfermedades “materiales” y “espirituales” en la nosología nahua serrana
Las afecciones “espirituales”, en cambio, incluyen los males que afectan hsp70 inhibitor los principios anímicos del ser humano y son causadas por agentes conscientes: dueños de los lugares, aires patógenos, en ocasiones Dios o los santos y con frecuencia individuos con capacidades nocivas o brujos con intenciones malignas. Se trata del espanto (momauhti), el robo del espíritu, el mal aire (yeyecatl), el mal de ojo y su variante elxoxal, así como la amplia serie de dolencias psíquicas y somáticas derivadas del “daño” producido por brujería. No obstante, otros padecimientos de este tipo, como la tiricia, son provocados de forma accidental o involuntaria.
Pero esta clasificación de las enfermedades debe tomarse con cuidado y no considerar que la nosología nahua se corresponde con una simple diferenciación entre los dominios del “cuerpo” y del “alma” tal y como son definidos en la concepción médico-filosófica occidental. No se trata de una taxonomía que divida las enfermedades en orgánicas y no orgánicas, en corporales y anímicas; quizás se podría creer a primera vista, pero está lejos de ser así. Las enfermedades que se presumen “físicas” pueden haber sido desencadenadas por un agente espiritual patógeno y responder a una etiología “espiritual” —la erupción de forúnculos en la cabeza del niño afectado por mal de ojo o xoxal, como se verá—, o el sentido de lo que es “material” o “físico” tener poco en común con las explicaciones de la biomedicina —los mecanismos de la caída de mollera, por ejemplo—, o presentarse un desarreglo “material” que no constituya una enfermedad, sino el síntoma de una dolencia “espiritual” más compleja y emboscada, es decir, que un síntoma “físico” tenga una causa “espiritual” —la palidez y abulia de los niños afectados por la tiricia—. Así, surgen cuadros patológicos en los que, en función del contexto, algunos elementos son síntomas y otros propiamente las dolencias.
Los terapeutas responden igualmente a lithosphere esta taxonomía. Quienes curan “materialmente” son los hueseros, sobanderos, parteras y curanderos herbolarios principalmente, dotados de instrucción formal pero carentes en general (salvo las parteras) de un don obtenido mediante revelaciones de carácter divino. Los que curan “espiritualmente” sí poseen tal don: son los curanderos de susto o de aire, los graniceros, los espiritualistas trinitarios marianos y los brujos. Aunque las especialidades suelen corresponderse con terapeutas diferentes, con frecuencia sucede que ciertos individuos poderosos concentran en sí mismos varias funciones: un granicero que domina las tormentas puede curar de espanto, de huesos, prescribir farmacopea herbolaria y combatir o producir la brujería, por ejemplo, combinándose así terapéuticas “materiales” y “espirituales” en una misma persona.

Condiciones para la salud: acercamiento a las concepciones nahuas del cuerpo y de la persona
Según los nahuas, en el proceso de gestación el feto recibe, a la vez, un alma y un corazón. El alma se la entrega Dios-Sol y por ello se la considera “caliente”; instalada en el corazón, dota al infante de vida y de la capacidad de movimiento y crecimiento. Con un alma en ebullición, “por naturaleza los niños chiquitos tienen más calor que los adultos, ellos cuando comen están sudando, nosotros no sudamos, también cuando están abrigados sudan; los viejitos, en cambio, son más fríos”.
El alma define el carácter y la fortaleza psicológica del niño: si será calmado o agresivo, enfermizo o lo suficientemente resistente como para convertirse en curandero:
Existen niños de “corazón débil” (ahmo quixicoa ianimancon) y “fuerte” (re-sistiroa ianimancon), estos últimos principalmente si nacen los martes o los viernes, “los días de los brujos”, o en periodos de luna llena. Las emociones se gestan en el corazón y los de corazón fuerte poseen latido fuerte y mirada intensa, son “muy berrinchudos, muy corajientos, muy alterados”. Los de corazón débil tienden a la preocupación y a sufrir del mal del espanto.

The nano gold surface can be functionalized

The nano-gold surface can be functionalized by thiolated organic compounds due to the strong affinity of gold to the thiol group of these compounds. The property of gold to make a strong bond with the thiol group of organic compounds enables it to achieve stable and uniform monolayer of these organic compounds on its surface. This monolayer can act as a cross-linker for binding benfotiamine and make them sterically accessible for the target antigen as illustrated in Fig. 1b and thus can be used for studying antibody-antigen reaction dynamics [22–23] by detecting the change in the LSPR resonance wavelength due to adsorption, dissociation and regeneration of the surface in real time as shown in Fig. 1c and various other such mechanisms.
By studying reaction dynamics, the rate at which the body responses to a certain drug can be understood, which plays a significant role in making drugs and studying their effects on human body. Researchers are devoted in developing biosensors with improved capabilities of diagnosis and monitoring of diseases and drug delivery. Our LSPR based sensor has a sensitivity of 266.66nm/RIU. With increased control and uniformity of the nano-rippled gold structure we believe we can make it a useful and reliable technique for biosensing purposes.

Experimental procedure and setup
The key element of our sensor is a gold film with nano-scale ripple pattern on a substrate. The nano-ripple structure is formed by argon cluster ion beam bombardment at an inclined angle of 60°. Each cluster has almost 3000 atoms of argon gas and is striking a 100nm thin layer of gold film. Nano-ripples are formed as a result of the forward sputtering, and forward surface diffusion of the gold atoms [12–14,24].
Fig. 2 shows our experimental setup. A white collimated beam of light passes through the polarizer and is focused on the gold rippled samples. The scattered light is captured by the spectrometer through the optical fiber and reads the intensity spectra vs the wavelength of light. In this setup we use the microscope to make sure every time we take the spectrum at the same point on the sample to maintain the uniformity of our reading and have a fix reference point.
The scattering spectra from the structure formed by the fluence of 2×1016/cm2 of the argon gas clusters gives a peak in the intensity at the resonant wavelength. By changing the polarization of the incident electric field from 90° to 45° and then to 0° we recorded the change in the spectral resonance intensity in order to observe the polarization dependence of the LSPR spectral peak, Fig. 3.
Fig. 4b shows the AFM image of the one dimensional nano-ripple pattern formed by the fluence of 1×1016/cm2, 2×1016/cm2, 4×1016/cm2 and 5×1016/cm2. The nano-ripple dimension is modified by the change in fluence of argon clusters producing these nano-patterns. The LSPR spectrum from these nano-structures is shown in the Fig. 4a. In this article the resonance peaks for 1×1016/cm2, 2×1016/cm2 and 4×1016/cm2 are slightly different from our previously reported paper [16]. This is because before we took the spectrum, the nano-ripple surface was being sprayed by nitrogen gas to get rid of any dirt on the samples and cleaned in UV-ozone cleaner for 15mins to avoid any organic compound pre-attachment to ensure exact LSPR peak.
In order to measure the sensitivity of this optical nano-ripple gold biosensor, we studied the shift in the LSPR spectral peak with water and ethanol. Multiple secondary peaks were observed in the spectrum as seen in Fig. 5. The sensitivity and biocompatibility of the nano-metallic ripple surface is checked by introducing it to an organic compound with high affinity to gold. The cleaned ripple surface of 2×1016/cm2 nano-structure is functionalized with a mono-layer of 4-methyl-benzenethiol (4MBT) by dipping the sample in a 0.02M of 4MBT solution (0.285g of 4MBT in 10ml of ethanol) for 2h. It is then washed with ethanol to get rid of excess 4MBT in order to achieve a uniform and stable monolayer of 4MBT adsorbed on the nano-ripple gold surface. Later on dried using nitrogen gas. With a mono-layer of 4MBT we see a resonance shift of 26nm, shown in Fig. 6.

The anatomical crown of the extracted tooth was

The anatomical crown of the extracted tooth was sectioned off and the screw access hole was created on the palatal surface of the crown (Fig. 7). A screw retained provisional abutment was placed onto the implants. The natural crown was steam cleaned, treated, and connected to the temporary abutment rifampicin with flowable composite resin intra-orally with an aid of a position index (Fig. 8a and b). The connected provisional restoration was then removed from the implant and composite resins were used to contour the sub-gingival portion (Fig. 9a and b). It is crucial the subgingical contour supported the peri-implant tissue.
Upon completion of the screw retained provisional restoration, a tall, flat-contoured healing abutment was placed onto the implant prior to the placement of bone graft materials. The healing abutment allowed the grafting materials to be placed and packed against it at the same time prevented the excess from entering the screw channel. A xenograft bone graft material (Bio-Oss, Geistlich Pharma AG) was used to fill the gap between the implant and the buccal wall as well as the space above up to the most coronal aspect of the free gingival margin (Fig. 10). The healing abutment was then removed, leaving the bone graft material intact. The prepared provisional restoration was subsequently screwed onto the implants and the access was sealed with a temporary material (Cavit temporary filling materials, 3M, ESPE). The occlusion was adjusted to clear all static and dynamic occlusal contacts (Fig. 11). The technique resulted in minimum alteration of the patient׳s esthetics (Fig. 12).

Discussion
Tooth removal results in marked rifampicin in buccal–lingual alveolar bone width [14,15]. Araujo and Lindhe showed that the reduction of the dimension of an extraction site was due to the replacement of bundle bone with woven bone from the inner portion of the socket and the resorption of the outer and crestal portions of the buccal–lingual socket walls [16].
Various techniques have been proposed to place implants immediately following extraction [17]. Assessment of the morphology of the pre-extraction socket is essential. Elian et al. classified the extraction site based on the presence or absence of the labial and interproximal bone, and its overlying gingival tissue and papilla surrounding the compromised tooth to be extracted [18]. When a socket is not compromised, described as a type I socket, the use of bone graft coupled with flapless surgery can help limit the amount of buccal contour change [11,19,20]. The grafting materials are then contained by the provisional restoration.

Conclusion

Introduction
The main goal of cleaning and shaping the root canal system is to prepare the root canal, thus creating adequate space for copious irrigation and three dimensional obturation [1,2]. Use of inflexible stainless steel instruments in curved canals can cause iatrogenic damage to the original shape of the root canal [3]. This damage can be in the form of canal transportation, ledge formation or perforation [4]. To avoid recessive damage, nickel titanium (NiTi) instruments with shape memory and superelasticity were developed [5]. But NiTi instruments carry inherent risk of instrument fracture and root dentinal crack formation [6,7]. These root dentinal cracks can further progress to root fractures resulting in failure of root canal treatment [8].
Most commonly NiTi instruments are used with two types of movement: first is continuous rotating full sequence and second is reciprocating. Torsion and flexion occur with continuous rotating NiTi instruments while preparing root canals, which can lead to instrument fracture. To avoid this, reciprocating movement was proposed [9]. This movement minimizes the stresses on instrument by counterclockwise (cutting action) and clockwise (release of instrument) movements [10]. Reciprocating movement claims to mimic manual movement and reduces various risks associated with continuous rotating file systems. But reciprocating systems with small and equal Clockwise (CW)/Counterclockwise (CCM) angles have decreased cutting efficiency, thus making progression into canal more laborious [11].

UGT B is involved in the glucuronidation of catechol

UGT2B7 is involved in the glucuronidation of catechol estrogens, bile acids, morphine, MPA, oxazepam and zidovudine with overlapping substrate specificities (Mackenzie et al., 2003). Additionally, UGT2B7∗2 allele is affiliated with defective morphine glucuronidation in vitro and hence, homozygous infants with the UGT2B7∗2 allele, may be at an enhanced risk of potential life-threatening CNS depression after codeine treatment (Coffman et al., 1997; Ishii et al., 1997). In fact, UGT2B7 exclusively catalyzes the glucuronidation of codeine, morphine and zidovudine (AZT) (Barbier et al., 2000) and non-drug xenobiotic substrates including hydroxylated derivatives of the prototypic carcinogens 2-acetylaminofluorene and benzo[a]-pyrene. Despite being primarily involved in the detoxification of xenobiotic and endogenous substrates, UGT2B7 also plays a vital role in forming bioactive or even toxic compounds like the highly cholestatic D-ring glucuronides of estrogens and the acyl-glucuronides of drugs such as diflunisal that binds to proteins and triggers toxic immunological responses (Worrall and Dickinson, 1995). Various studies have demonstrated that UGT2B7∗2 polymorphism nominally impacts enzyme activity and substrate specificity of UGT2B7 (Coffman et al., 1998; Holthe et al., 2002a,b; Bhasker et al., 2000). However, a wide inter-individual variance in the ability to glucuronidate morphine (McQuay et al., 1990; Klepstad et al., 2000; Faura et al., 1998) and AZT (Mentre et al., 1993) suggests that this or other polymorphisms in UGT2B7 may contribute to morphine metabolism variability.
UGT2B15∗2 glucuronidates many drugs such as oxazepam, lorazepam and rofecoxib. Our data indicate that heterozygous repeat of UGT2B15∗2 accounts for about 62% of the study population. Studies have shown that prostate cancer patients are significantly more likely to be homozygous for the lower activity UGT2B15∗2 allele than control individuals (Holthe et al., 2000a,b) Homozygous repeat glucose assay represent increased risk of prostate cancer associated with this low activity variant. Therefore, our data indicate that Saudis are at a low risk of being afflicted with prostate cancer.

Conclusion

Acknowledgments
This study was supported by the National Plan For Science and Technology Program (NPST)-King Saud University (Grant 08-MED565-02), King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Introduction
The increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS, known as free radicals) levels in living organisms, as a result of metabolism, environmental exposure and aging, can ultimately contribute to cell death induced by several harmful events on cell structures, such as DNA, RNA, proteins and lipids (Hosain et al., 2016; Nakazawa et al., 2016). The use of anti-oxidants to protect cells from excess of ROS and to delay the cells aging and death is, therefore, a regular practice.
Tocopherols are a family of natural and synthetic compounds, being d-α-tocopherol or vitamin E the most popular member, and are preferentially absorbed and accumulated in humans (Brigelius-Flohé and Traber, 1999). These molecules contain two main structural elements, the chromanol head (benzodihydropyran containing an alcohol group), and the phytyl tail consisting of repeats of saturated isoprenoid units. d-α-tocopherol has antioxidant function, by scavenging peroxyl radicals, and is able to protect the lipids, present in the fat phase of foodstuff, as well as those in membrane of living cells, from auto-oxidation (Atkinson and Traber, 2007). However, like other lipophilic compounds, d-α-tocopherol is poorly soluble in water and is highly sensitive to various environmental factors, such as light, oxygen, alkali and temperature (Zigoneanu et al., 2008).
In order to improve its biological stability during manufacturing and storage, d-α-tocopherol has been incorporated in nanocarriers. Several studies report the use of different types of nanocarriers to promote the antioxidant activity in foodstuff, as well as to preserve its nutritional value. Examples are liposomes (Khanniri et al., 2016), solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers (Hentschel et al., 2008; Souto et al., 2005), and micro/nanoemulsions (Kumar et al., 2016; Zheng et al., 2016).

Introduction Worldwide Glaucoma is the second most common cause

Introduction
Worldwide, Glaucoma is the second most common cause of irreversible visual loss, with its prevalence in South India varying between 1.62% and 2.6%.
A chronic optic neuropathy with characteristic structural and functional changes in the optic nerve head, an important risk factor for glaucoma is increased Intraocular pressure (IOP). A normal Dihydromyricetin manufacturer intraocular pressure is essential to maintain the shape of the eye and visual function with prolonged elevation in IOP resulting in irreversible damage to the retinal ganglion Dihydromyricetin manufacturer and postganglionic nerve fibres. Detecting the IOP is essential in not only initiating treatment, but also in monitoring the response to treatment. The past few decades have seen a rapid evolution of tonometry instrumentation to ensure more accurate measurement of IOP. However, both ocular and nonocular factors often exert confounding influences in the accurate measurement of the IOP and complicate the treatment.

Materials and method
This study was approved by the Institute Research Board and Ethical Committee. Over a 4month period (January–April 2013), patients of both sexes between the ages of 20–80years attending the outpatient services were randomly screened and included in this study. Patients with pre-existing corneal pathologies and nystagmus were excluded from the study. The IOP was measured by a single investigator using the Noncontact Tonometer, Perkin’s applanation tonometer and Schiotz indentation tonometer in that order to prevent lowering of IOP induced by contact. In all cases, a 5min interval was ensured between any two methods of IOP measurement and an average of three measurements was taken as the final IOP obtained by that method. CCT was measured with the Altair Ultrasonic pachymeter after tonometric measurements had been completed.
Finally, the patient was placed in a supine position and asked to fix at a target. Zero error of Schiotz indentation tonometer (Medetz Surgical, USA) was taken by placing the footplate on the test block provided. The eyelids were separated by hand without exerting pressure on the globe, and the tonometer foot plate was placed on the anaesthetized cornea so that the plunger moved freely vertically. The scale reading was noted. The 5.5gram weight was initially used, but if scale reading was four or less additional weights were added to the plunger. The subsequent readings were taken with additional weights to overcome the influence of sclera rigidity. These readings were converted to IOP measurement in mm of Hg by using Friedenwald’s table.
Following the completion of IOP measurements, the ultrasonic pachymetry probe (Optikon 2000 S.p.A, Altair, Rome, Italy) was placed on the centre of the anaesthetized cornea. Three consecutive readings were taken and averaged to get the central corneal thickness. CCT values were categorized as per the findings of the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study Group.
Statistical analyses were performed using MedCalc for Windows, version 13.3.1 (MedCalc Software, Ostend, Belgium). IOP measurements were compared to those obtained by the Perkin’s handheld applanation tonometer which was assumed to be the gold standard (Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values). Regression Analysis was also performed to determine any causal relationship (Dependant variable -Perkin’s Tonometer IOP; Independent variables- Noncontact tonometer IOP, Schiotz tonometer IOP, age, gender and CCT). A Bland–Altman plot was constructed to investigate the existence of any systematic difference between the different tonometry methods.

Discussion
Population screening for glaucoma based solely on IOP may not be necessarily identifying all patients due to variable response of the human eye to the changing IOP. Although multiple risk factors can account for the susceptibility to glaucomatous damage, the IOP is the only risk factor mutation rate is amenable to treatment by pharmacological and surgical measures. Baseline values of the IOP will help the clinician in monitoring progress of the disease and response to treatment. While a number of tonometers are available for measuring the IOP, each has its own advantages and disadvantages. The increased costs and the need for specialized training for optimal utilization of modern tonometers preclude the use of such tonometers in the rural camp setting and outreach mass screening programmes.

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En México se presenta un doble perfil de malnutrición: por un lado, la anemia que afecta 2b3a inhibitors los niños; y por otro, la obesidad tanto en niños como en adultos. Desde 1989 en la Encuesta Nacional de Alimentación en el Medio Rural (enal) se comienza a señalar la transición epidemiológica mexicana; esto significa que simultáneamente se presentan problemas de salud asociados a países en estadios de subdesarrollo, como es el caso de las carencias alimenticias, y problemas de países en estadio de desarrollo industrial, como la abundancia alimenticia (Bermejo 1989; Bourges 2001). Esta transición ha sido corroborada con el análisis de los datos más recientes de las Encuestas de Nutrición y Salud en México que se realizaron a nivel nacional, local, urbano y rural.
La transición epidemiológica y nutricional, que era ya evidente, se expresa en forma particular con una tendencia creciente y un ritmo acelerado en la prevalencia de obesidad asociada a enfermedades crónicas del tipo diabetes mellitus, hipertensión y enfermedades cardiovasculares (; ; ; ). La magnitud del problema es tal, que en el año 2000 el Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública reportó un aumento de 60 % de las enfermedades crónicas no trasmisibles entre los años 1980 y 2000 (insp 2000) entre las cuales están las que se derivan de los problemas de obesidad.
En las conclusiones de la Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición 1999, Rivera y Sepúlveda (2003) señalan que el sobrepeso y la obesidad en México son un problema de epidemia nacional, ya que la prevalencia del sobrepeso se incrementó en aproximadamente 50 %, mientras que la prevalencia de la obesidad se triplicó. De igual forma, en la encuesta se señala que, si bien el sobrepeso y la obesidad son una epidemia nacional en adultos, en los niños entre cinco y once años ya es tema de preocupación, puesto que se presenta una alta prevalencia de obesidad en estos grupos etarios; más aún, ambos problemas combinados afectan aproximadamente 27.2 % de los niños entre los cinco y los once años de edad; en otras palabras, uno de cada cinco niños en este grupo presenta sobrepeso u obesidad. De manera concreta, se observa que a cytokinins medida que los niños van avanzando en edad también aumenta la prevalencia de sobrepeso u obesidad ().
Este patrón se presenta de manera similar al segregar el problema del sobrepeso y la obesidad por áreas. Se encontró que la prevalencia de ambos problemas tiende a incrementar más en las áreas urbanas que en las rurales y a medida que aumenta la edad de los niños. También es necesario tomar en consideración que en la encuesta anteriormente mencionada (Rivera y Sepúlveda 2003), la prevalencia del sobrepeso y la obesidad en la población en edad escolar fue de 26.6 % en la ciudad de México, dato que no difiere mucho del que corresponde al medio urbano nacional que se ubicó en 22.9 %. Está claro, entonces, que los datos guardan relación con el planteamiento que afirma que en el medio urbano se presenta una malnutrición creciente por exceso y desequilibrio en la alimentación y que afecta a la población infantil; es decir, es una consecuencia de la alimentación que se caracteriza por una sobrealimentación nociva para la salud (Zúñiga 2005).
En el 2005, Ortiz y colaboradores () señalaron que la desigualdad de ingresos, la transición alimentaria y el desequilibrio en el consumo de nutrientes y alimentos son los rasgos fundamentales del actual patrón alimentario de México. De manera general, la dieta mexicana puede catalogarse en tres tipos: la dieta indígena, propia de grupos étnicos y más afín con grupos de clase obrera; la dieta mestiza, propia de estratos económicos medios; y la dieta variada. En el trasfondo de esta clasificación se intuye el supuesto de la transformación alimentaria que pasó de una dieta tradicional mexicana a una dieta de tipo industrializado; esta última se adoptó en todo el país, pero en mayor medida en los centros urbanos y entre grupos de estratos de clase media y alta. Lo anterior se confirma en un estudio sobre nutrición de niños del centro de México en el cual González (2003) afirma que la dieta de los niños es elevada en azúcares refinados y refrescos y baja en el consumo de fibra.