br Conculsion Very little information about the production

Conculsion
Very little information about the production of virulence factors by avian E. coli strains exists in Saudi Arabia, so the existence of APEC strains in KSA poultry farms must be investigated by epidemiological surveys, with particular attention to virulence factors of serotype isolates.

Acknowledgment

Introduction
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is a Gram positive facultative intracellular organism causing caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) in sheep and goats. The disease characterized by chronic suppurative BV6 and significant economical losses to the sheep industries worldwide (Paton et al., 2003; Dorella et al., 2006).
C. pseudotuberculosis causes a characteristic acute disease in buffaloes known as Oedematus skin disease (OSD). The disease is endemic in Egypt and is characterized by the development of diffused swellings in the skin of the hind quarter, fore limbs, belly and brisket regions. These lesions usually affect the lymph nodes which become enlarged and inflamed and filled with pus. At first is filled with serous fluid then turned to sac of pus due to contamination with other bacteria as staphylococci, streptococci, E. coli and Pseudomonas. The disease is characterized by high morbidity and low mortality and the badly treated cases died. OSD is a terrible disease for farmers and veterinarians; it causes severe economical losses due to the necessary surgical intervention, expensive medication, reduction in the milk production and lowering of work activity of the affected animals (Selim, 2001). In human infections caused by C. pseudotuberculosis most commonly occur by the occupational exposure, ingestion of raw milk from goat and cow’s milk (Peel et al., 1997).
The majority of studies have employed formalin inactivated toxoid vaccines derived from phospholipase D (PLD) rich C. pseudotuberculosis culture supernatants and these have conferred varying levels of protective immunity in both sheep and goats (Narin et al., 1977 and Eggleton et al., 2005). In the present investigation two combined vaccines prepared from formalin inactivated whole cells of biovar 1 (sheep origin) in each dose, the second vaccine is composed of inactivated whole cells of biovar 2 (buffalo origin) in combination with rPLD. These vaccines will be used for vaccination of sheep and buffaloes and protective efficacy was assessed by virulent strains locally isolated from sheep with CLA or buffaloes with OSD.

Materials and methods

Results

Discussion
In the present investigation, this is the first report describing immunizations of sheep with bacterins prepared from nitrate positive C. pseudotuberculosis strain isolated from buffaloes (biovar 2) and challenged with virulent biovar 2 isolate. No significant difference in protection efficacy of both vaccines could be observed in challenged sheep either challenged with virulent biovar 1 or biovar 2. All vaccinated sheep were completely protected against challenge. At the same time control non vaccinated groups either challenged with biovar 1 (sheep origin) or biovar 2 (buffalo origin) showed the development of chronic symptoms of CLA characterized by production of caseous abscess either in external or internal lymph nodes.
These results indicated that C. pseudotuberculosis either of biovar 1 or biovar 2 induced the same lesion which can be attributed to the same virulence factor i.e. PLD possessed by both biovars. Vaccination with a combination of rPLD and killed whole-cells resulted in complete protection against challenge (Fontaine et al., 2006). Our findings are in consistence with our finding about complete protection of combined rPLD and killed whole cells. The results of our study would tend to support the findings of pervious authors (Cameron, 1972 and Cameron and Fuls, 1973).
Interestingly, both PLD and the formalin inactivated whole cell vaccines prevented dissemination of challenge bacteria beyond the site of inoculation to essentially equivalent extents. Cell mediated immunity can be attributed to rPLD which activate macrophages in vaccinated animals. The role of rPLD in activation of macrophages has been shown in immune model (El-Enbaawy et al., 2005).

br Conflicts of interest br Acknowledgments br

Conflicts of interest

Acknowledgments

Introduction
According to investigations on industrial accidents, human errors account for > 90% of accidents in nuclear industries, > 80% of accidents in chemical industries, > 75% of maritime accidents, and > 70% of aviation accidents [1]. Human error also constitutes one of the direct causes of some of the most shocking industrial accidents which have occurred around the world such as Bhopal in India (1984), Piper Alpha in the United Kingdom (1988), Chernobyl in Ukraine (1986), and Texaco Refinery in Wales (1994) [2].
In the worst industrial accident in world history, the Bhopal disaster, a combination of operator error, poor maintenance, failed safety systems, and poor safety management were identified as the causes of leaked methyl isocyanate gas from a pesticide plant which led to the creation of a dense toxic cloud and killed > 2,500 people. The explosion and fire accident which occurred in the Piper Alpha offshore oil and gas platform and killed 167 workers was attributed mainly to human error including deficiencies in the permit to work (PTW) system, deficient analysis of hazards, and inadequate training in the use of safety procedures. In the Chornobyl accident, operator error and operating instructions and design deficiencies were found to be the two main factors responsible for the explosion of a 1,000 MW reactor which released radioactive materials that spread over much of Europe. Finally, the main cause of the Texaco Refinery explosion, caused by continuously pumping inflammable hydrocarbon liquid into a process vessel which had a closed outlet, was the result of a combination of failures in management, equipment, and control systems, such as the inaccurate control system reading of a valve state, modifications which had not been fully assessed, failure to provide operators with the necessary process overviews, and attempts to keep the unit running when it order shk should have been shut down [3].
Human error has been defined as any improper decision or behavior which may have a negative impact on the effectiveness, safety, or performance system [4]. A PTW is a formal written system to control certain types of works which are identified as potentially hazardous. This system may need to be used in high-risk jobs such as hot works, confined space entries, maintenance activities, carrying hazardous substances, and electrical or mechanical isolations [5]. In this system, responsible individuals should assess work procedures and check the safety at all stages of the work. Moreover, permits are effective means of communication among site managers, plant supervisors, and operators, and the individuals who carrying out the work. The people doing the job sign the permit to show that they understand the risks and the necessary precautions [6].
Although a PTW is an integral part of a safe system of work and can be helpful in the proper management of a wide range of activities, hypertonic may be susceptible to human error itself. For instance, a breakdown in the PTW system at shift change over and in the safety procedures was one of the major factors that resulted in the explosion and fire accident of the Piper Alpha oil and gas platform [7]. Also, the lack of an issued permit for the actual job was one of the reasons for the Hickson and Welch accident in 1992 [8].
Up to now, very limited studies have been conducted regarding human error analysis in the PTW system. Hoboubi et al [9] investigated the human error probabilities (HEPs) in a PTW using an engineering approach and estimated the HEP to range from 0.044 to 0.383. In another study conducted by the same authors [10], human errors in the PTW system were identified and analyzed using the predictive human error analysis technique. The most important identified errors in that study were inadequate isolation of process equipment, inadequate labeling of equipment, a delay in starting the work after issuing the work permit, improper gas testing, and inadequate site preparation measures. Moreover, findings of a study conducted by Haji Hosseini et al [11] on the evaluation of factors contributing to human error in the process of PTW issuing indicated a significant correlation between the errors and training, work experience, and age of the individuals involved in work permit issuance. However, as mentioned above, a limited number of researches have analyzed the PTW process from the human error point of view. Moreover, except for Hoboubi et al [9], other studies were descriptive in nature and failed to quantify the human errors in the PTW issuance process. In this context, the present study aimed to identify and analyze human errors in different steps of the PTW process in a chemical plant.

Para la cuantificaci n de los restos

Para la cuantificación de los restos de artrópodos solamente se considera NISP (dependiendo de la clase, como el Balanus sp., Pyridoxal isonicotinoyl hydrazone la cual se considera como NISP y NMI), ya que es muy difícil determinar si un fragmento del exoesqueleto, de propodito o dactilopodito pertenece a uno o más individuos; por tal motivo, no se considera el NMI para en este proceso. Cada material fue cuantificado para determinar la abundancia taxonómica (NISP y NMI), se agrupó según subsector, estructuras arquitectónicas y nivel estratigráfico. Luego todos los datos recopilados fueron unificados y procesados en frecuencias porcentuales para lograr reconocer la proporción de cada material en relación con el total analizado. Además, se identificaron y localizaron los biotopos ecológicos para reconocer el lugar de procedencia y los tipos de sustratos asociados a las distintas especies.

Resultados

Discusión

Conclusiones

Agradecimientos

Introducción
Los hongos y el hombre Pyridoxal isonicotinoyl hydrazone han compartido una estrecha relación desde los comienzos de la civilización, especialmente con aquellos que afectan al sistema nervioso central, conocidos como alucinógenos o neurotrópicos, y que han llamado la atención científica y médica desde su redescubrimiento en la década de 1950. El presente trabajo es una traducción muy modificada y reducida del capítulo del autor publicado en Rush (2013) y con la autorización de dicho editor.

El principio
El uso de los hongos neurotrópicos en las prácticas tradicionales comenzó durante el Paleolítico con petroglifos en Siberia y con unos murales prehistóricos en el Sahara y en España. Las figuras en piedra de Siberia (Dikov, 1971) muestran pequeños seres humanos con hongos sobre la cabeza, como si hubiera alguna relación mental. Los hongos son probablemente Amanita muscaria (figs. 1-2), aunque se aprecian también figuras que imitan a boletáceos, que las relacionan con el uso de estos hongos en Papúa Nueva Guinea y en China (Stijve, 1997; Arora, 2008) que se discutirán. Los murales del Sahara, en las cuevas de Tassili, al sur de Argelia (Samorini, 2001) (figs. 9-10) presentan hombres corriendo con un hongo en una mano y a chamanes con su cuerpo cubierto por hongos. Se ha sugerido que los hongos del Sahara son PsiIocybe mairei (Guzmán, 2012) (fig. 12:1), especie alucinógena descrita de Argelia y de Marruecos.
Existe un mural prehistórico en Europa (fig. 11), el primero conocido relacionado con hongos (Akers, Ruiz, Piper y Ruck, 2011), localizado en la provincia de Cuenca, NE de España, cerca de los Pirineos. Los hongos representados son P. hispanica (Guzmán, 2000) (fig. 12: 2), conocido de los Pirineos, en donde crece sobre estiércol y es usado por los jóvenes con fines recreativos (Fernández-Sasia, 2006). El mural muestra una escena de la caza de toros y ciervos y una pequeña hilera de hongos. Se supone que estos hongos están relacionados con el estiércol de los animales. Interesante es notar que algunos hongos están representados con estípite ondulado o bifurcado hacia abajo, que podrían considerarse como figuras antropoides, observadas en otras cuevas españolas (Alonso, 1984).

Este hongo (figs. 1-2), ampliamente distribuido en el hemisferio boreal en bosques de pinos, tiene importancia etnomicológica debido a Trans configuration que el hombre lo ingiere desde tiempos primitivos en Siberia. Las tribus siberianas, debido a la escasez del hongo, también beben la orina de aquellos individuos que los han comido, con el fin de lograr los mismos efectos (Wasson y Wasson, 1957). Amanita muscaria fue también tradicionalmente importante en los países nórdicos de Europa (Nichols, 2000). Inclusive se empleó en la Edad Media. Un fresco en la capilla de Plaincourault, Francia, muestra a Adán y Eva en el Jardín del Edén (Ramsbottom, 1954). En este mural Adán y Eva están a los lados, y de la misma estatura del árbol del Edén que tiene la forma del hongo y una serpiente enroscada en el estípite ofrece la tradicional manzana. Ambos personajes tienen sus manos sobre el vientre, lo que se relaciona con los efectos de la intoxicación gástrica común por este hongo y también con el fenómeno del enanismo, por el tamaño pequeño de Adán y Eva respecto al árbol. Wasson (1968) relacionó A. muscaria con el origen del enigmático soma de la antigua religión indo-aria.

In and the Sabratha Cancer Registry in

In 2006 and 2007, the Sabratha Cancer Registry in western Libya, which had been set up in 2006 by the African Oncology Institute (AOI) in Sabratha, published two online reports on oral cancer (see Table 2b, Abusaa et al., 2006, 2007). This registry, which covers approximately 9% of Libyan population, consists of two units: a population-based cancer registry covering western Libya (Alegelat, Aljameil, Zwara, Sabratha, Zawia, Surman, Altawaila, Zulten, Rigdalen, Abukamash, and Alassa) and a hospital-based cancer registry at the African Oncology Institute. These reports revealed head and neck cancer accounted for 5% and 4.8% of all cancers patients, respectively in 2006 and 2007. The most common cancer site in 2006 was the oral cavity followed by the nasopharynx while in 2007 the nasopharynx was the most common site which was in agreement with the eastern Libya 2003 findings (Abusaa et al., 2006, 2007; El Mistiri et al., 2006). Fig. 2 shows the comparison of specific oral cavity and pharyngeal cancer site’s distribution between 2003 eastern and 2007 western Libya reports (Abusaa et al., 2007; El Mistiri et al., 2006).
As for the other geographic regions of Libya, there are no cancer registries either in the Tripoli region nor in the southern part of Libya, which combined account for nearly 60% of the total Libyan population. Consequently the descriptive picture of oral cancer in the Tripoli region and in the southern part of Libya remains unclear, and thus for the country as a whole the picture is quite incomplete. While a few cohort studies and case reports have been published about the Sulfo-NHS-Biotin of these two regions (Akhtar et al., 1993; Moona and Mehdi, 2001; Mohammed et al., 2013), the data from these two types of epidemiological studies do not permit meaningful comparisons with the current descriptive picture of oral cancer in the western and eastern regions of Libya.
In 2008–2009 (see Table 2a), three articles (Elarbi et al., 2009; El-Gehani et al., 2009; Subhashraj et al., 2009)—also by the Faculty of Dentistry at Benghazi—formed a series of reports describing the findings from one retrospective study on different benign and malignant oral tumors with the detailed distribution of biopsied lesion type from these articles reported in Table 3 and illustrated in Fig. 3. These articles reported on data from the medical reports and biopsy files of 2390 patients who had maxillofacial biopsies performed at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry at Benghazi during a period of 17years between 1991 and 2007. In this study, primary malignant tumors constituted 8% of all cases and premalignant epithelial lesions of mucosa and skin 6% of all cases, while benign odontogenic/non-odontogenic tumors constituted 16% of all cases. Of the primary malignant tumors (i.e., cancer cases), 82% were tumors of epithelial origin (carcinoma), 11% were tumors of immune system and 7% were tumors of mesenchymal origin (sarcoma). For malignant tumors, the male to female ratio was 1.4:1 and the mean age of these cancer patients was 46years for males and females combined. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) accounted for 41% of all primary malignant tumors, or 3.4% of all biopsied cases. Among the epithelial tumors, SCC was the most common neoplasm (50.6%), with a male: female ratio of 1.6:1 (El-Gehani et al., 2009; Subhashraj et al., 2009). One of these three articles reported on orofacial tumors in 213 Libyan children patients who had been treated at the Faculty of Dentistry at Benghazi over this time period. They found that malignant tumors constituted only 3.7% of the 213 cases, a finding they described as being low in comparison to other reports from Africa and Israel, which they attributed specifically to the low number of children found with Burkitt’s lymphoma in Libya (Elarbi et al., 2009).
Another retrospective study published in 2010 addressed the pattern of occurrence of oral SCC in Libya based upon the hospital records of all 122 patients subsequently diagnosed with oral SCC who had been referred to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at the Faculty of Dentistry at Benghazi in the period 1979–2004 from different regions of Libya (see Table 2a). The study found that tongue and floor of the mouth were the most common sites for SCC with ulceration and swelling being the most common clinical signs. It was noted that most of the patients presented for examination between 6 and 12months after their initial symptoms of SCC, and were found to be at TNM Stages III and IV and already exhibited tumor metastasis to lymph nodes and distant metastatic spread as the most common clinical stages at time of presentation to clinic. Among the 84.4% (n=103) of the oral SCC patients for whom tobacco smoking records were available, most were either regular or occasional tobacco smokers (Jaber and Abu-Fanas, 2010).

Periodontal disease severity has traditionally been assessed using clinical parameters

Periodontal disease severity has traditionally been assessed using clinical parameters like pocket probing depth, clinical attachment loss, bleeding on probing, and radiographic determination of alveolar bone loss. Most of these techniques were established more than five decades ago, and lack the capacity to identify highly susceptible patients at risk for disease progression [28,57]. Periodontitis is a highly complex disease, which hampers the development of rapid, accurate, diagnostic and prognostic tests. Nevertheless, the development of innovative diagnostic tests for periodontal disease remains a high priority.
A small number of miRNA studies related to periodontal disease have been performed (Table 2). Xie et al. [58] used microarray analysis to examine miRNA expression, and transcript levels of selected inflammatory-related miRNAs were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The study used gingival tissues from ten healthy subjects and ten patients with periodontitis. Levels of some miRNAs were more than five-fold higher in tissues from periodontitis patients than in control tissues. In addition, the possible regulation of Toll-lik receptors (TLRs) in periodontal inflammation by miRNA pathways was also proposed.
A pilot investigation was conducted to determine whether miRNA tropisetron was altered by obesity or periodontal disease, and whether there were any potential interactions between obesity and periodontitis that could involve miRNA modulation [59]. In this study, gingival biopsy samples were obtained from 20 patients, ten of who were non-obese (BMI<30kg/m2) and ten of who were obese (BMI>30kg/m2). Each group of ten patients contained five patients with chronic periodontitis and five periodontally healthy patients. This was the first trial to assess the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of periodontitis and a common chronic condition (obesity), as well as the interaction between the two diseases [60].
Stoecklin-Wasmer et al. [61] examined the occurrence of miRNAs in healthy and diseased gingival tissues and validated the in silico-predicted targets through mRNA profiling using whole-genome microarray analysis of the same specimens. Four miRNAs were significantly overexpressed, and seven significantly underexpressed, in gingival tissues compared to controls. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) identified 60 enriched miRNA gene sets with target genes involved in immune/inflammatory responses and tissue homeostasis. This was the first study to examine concurrent mRNA and miRNA expression in the same gingival tissues.
Only a handful of studies investigating miRNAs in gingival tissues have been reported to date. Studies of miRNAs and their relationships to periodontal disease will be improved in the near future by the use of diverse samples, including saliva, and this will allow the inter-relationships of periodontal disease with other systemic diseases to be ascertained. In addition, some studies using animal periodontitis models and dental stem cells have been conducted [62,63], and these will help determine the mechanisms underlying the modulation of specific candidate miRNAs.

Limitations of miRNAs as biomarkers
First, differentially expressed candidate miRNAs identified through pilot studies need to be validated. Most previous studies using tissues were performed with samples from small numbers of individuals without matching for potential confounding factors known to influence periodontitis susceptibility such as age and gender. Further validation studies using large well-characterised cohorts are required [60].
Second, although recent advances in molecular biology and high-throughput screening techniques have enabled researchers to characterise miRNA patterns in body fluids such as serum, plasma, and saliva on a large scale, this is limited by the lack of suitable endogenous controls for normalisation of salivary miRNAs. Recent research attempted to identify endogenous control miRNAs displaying minimal expression variability between samples [38], but endogenous salivary miRNA controls are required for future exploitation of miRNA datasets. In addition, saliva samples collected from the same individual can display considerable heterogeneity according to the collection method used, and standardised methods for sample collection should therefore be considered.

Prior studies point at a modest correlation between the PANSS

Prior studies point at a modest correlation between the PANSS cognitive factor and comprehensive neuropsychological assessments, for instance as reported by Good et al. (2004) among antipsychotic naïve, first episode psychosis patients. However, Bowie et al. (2002) reported a modest but significant relationship between the negative total symptom score of PANSS and the MMSE, as well as between the MMSE and the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale—Late Version Cognitive factor, ADAS-L-Cog, among geriatric schizophrenia patients with severe impairment. Although no correlation was found in this thyrotropin receptor study between duration of illness and MMSE scores or performance on the PANSS cognitive factor, the possible mediating effect of this and other variables on cognitive performance bears further investigation.

Conclusion

Role of Funding Source

Contributors

Conflict of Interest

Acknowledgements

Substance misuse and cognitive deficits both impede the treatment and recovery of persons with schizophrenia (). Studies show that cognitive performance is one to two standard deviations below average in schizophrenia () and that such deficits span neurocognitive and social–cognitive domains (), lead to poor long-term outcomes (), and may become worsened when those with the disorder misuse substances (). However, while alcohol and cannabis misuse has been associated with poorer cognitive outcomes among healthy adults (), these relations are much more complex in schizophrenia.
Studies of the cognitive impact of alcohol or cannabis misuse in schizophrenia have yielded mixed results (). Cannabis-misusing schizophrenia patients tend to demonstrate better cognitive performance than their non-cannabis-misusing thyrotropin receptor counterparts (), yet a few studies have reported no between-group differences (). In contrast, alcohol-misusing schizophrenia patients exhibit worse cognitive performance than their non-alcohol-misusing counterparts (), with a few studies reporting no between-group differences ().
Regarding the mixed findings reported between substance misusing and non-misusing schizophrenia patients on cognitive outcomes, several questions about the way in which the severity associated with alcohol, cannabis, or the concurrent use of these substances impacts cognition among those seeking treatment to improve these deficits remain. Variability in the degree of severity, which has been defined within the context of the problems that necessitate substance use treatment (), may reveal important cognitive differences within Recombinant joint subgroup. To date, however, the way in which such misuse impacts cognition in substance-misusing schizophrenia (SMS) has remained largely unexamined. The objectives of this study were to investigate cognitive performance differences between SMS, schizophrenia, and control participants, and examine whether alcohol or cannabis severity impacts cognition within the SMS sample.
Participants included 32 SMS, 28 schizophrenia, and 37 control participants partaking in studies of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET []) at the University of Pittsburgh. Inclusion criteria for schizophrenia outpatients consisted of an IQ ≥ 80; age 18 to 60; antipsychotic medication adherent; and schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder confirmed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID []). Inclusion criteria for SMS outpatients consisted of these criteria, as well as Addiction Severity Index (ASI []) severity ratings ≥ 4 for alcohol or cannabis, and significant cognitive and social disability confirmed by the Cognitive Styles and Social Cognition Eligibility Interview (). Cognitive and social disability criteria were part of the inclusion criteria for SMS patients to ensure that such participants had sufficient disability to need treatment. Inclusion criteria for controls consisted of an age 18 to 50; free from psychiatric diagnosis per the SCID; no substance abuse within 3 months. Participants’ characteristics are presented in .

Participants showed good insight only to people scored high or

Participants showed good insight; only 5 (8.2%) to 8 (13.1%) people scored high (4 or 5) in the SUMD dimensions. Overall, illness perceptions for cognitive and comprehension dimensions were favorable, but unfavorable for the emotional dimension. Clinical status of sample was characterized by mild symptoms as measured by the PANSS, CDS, and BAI scales. Descriptive data are presented in Table 1.
An analysis of differences in insight, illness perception and clinical status scores comparing groups by diagnosis, educational level, or having a partner, showed no significant results in general. Only in the PANSS negative dimension patients with schizophrenia (t(59)=3.10, 0.01), lower educational level (t(59)=2.25, 0.05), and without a partner scored higher (t(59)=2.12, 0.05). Time from onset, current age and age at onset showed no significant correlation with insight, illness perception and clinical status scores. Depression was associated with older current (r=0.48, p≤0.001) and onset age (r=0.47, p≤0.001).
Data for the association of insight and illness perception are presented in Table 2. Cognitive and emotional perceptions of illness were not related to any of the three dimensions of insight. Comprehension was negatively and significantly correlated to both, unawareness of mental disorder and of its social consequences; that is, patients who feel they scd1 understand well their disorder show better insight of illness and its social effects. Comprehension was not related to insight into medication effects. A detailed analysis of illness perception items revealed only three significant results: patients perceiving treatment as useful showed better insight of the disorder (but not of its social consequences) and of the effects of medication, and those who see the experienced symptoms as severe are more aware of the social consequences.
Regarding clinical status (Table 3), higher scores for positive symptoms and general psychopathology were significantly related to poorer insight (higher unawareness scores). Higher scores on negative symptoms were related to unawareness of social consequences. Overall, cognitive and emotional perceptions of illness were significantly related to most clinical status parameters, whereas comprehension showed no significant results.

Discussion
Participants showed fairly good levels of insight and favorable cognitive and comprehension illness perceptions, but emotions towards illness were unfavorable. From a perspective of lack of insight as a symptom (Cooke et al., 2005; Osatuke et al., 2008), sample patients’ good overall insight could be attributed to the fact that none of the participants was in a frank psychotic episode, and those who presented severe residual symptoms had to be excluded as they could not follow the interview. Furthermore, it should not be overlooked that positive and general psychopathology, although mild, were significantly associated with all three dimensions of insight, replicating the link between insight and psychopathology (McEvoy et al., 2006; Mintz et al., 2003, 2004; Mutsatsa et al., 2006), which is not always supported by research (Hasson-Ohayon et al., 2006; Lincoln et al., 2007; McEvoy et al., 1989). Results might also concur with the view of lack of insight as a coping process against distress (Buckley et al., 2007; Cooke et al., 2005; Osatuke et al., 2008). Insight improves patient’s prognosis but at the same time it increases psychological distress. The acceptance of having an illness, particularly influenced by the stigmatizing beliefs, might explain this paradox (Lysaker et al., 2007). The association of insight and demoralization seems stronger as self-stigma increases (Cavelti et al., 2012b; Lysaker et al., 2013a) and patients with good insight accompanied by stigmatizing beliefs have the highest risk of experiencing low quality of life, negative self-esteem, and depressed mood (Staring et al., 2009). As all participants had partial or total symptom remission, that is, illness was under control, patients might have been more willing to acknowledge a mental disorder and the benefits of treatment. Yet, insight was high and depression was scd1 low, but they were not significantly related. Lack of insight could have etiological bases other than denial or coping, yet they still serve to psychologically protect the individual from depression (Osatuke et al., 2008); this hypothesis requires adequate evaluation, unfortunately, data was not sufficient for testing.

buy KPT-185 br Introduction At the end of

Introduction
At the end of the last century, the World Health Organization introduced relevant provisions on obesity, regarding that obesity is a disease. In recent years, with the continuous improvement of people’s living standards and change in dietary structure, incidence of obesity has shown an increasing trend and obesity has become a serious health killer. Relevant research shows that obesity is often accompanied with chronic buy KPT-185 and emergence of oxidative stress in patients. Tumor necrosis factor-α is the major protein associated with obesity, which plays a very important role in regulating body fat metabolism (Suo and Wang, 2015). Obesity can cause serious increase in vivo tumor necrosis factor α content in patients. Research at this stage considers that this phenomenon is mainly related to low-grade inflammation and natural immunity (Liu and Liu, 2012). The author conducted meticulous research on 120 male SD rats, and applied rat test results in human clinical therapy (Song et al., 2014). The structure chart of tumor necrosis factor α is shown in Fig. 1.

Materials and methods

Results

Discussion and conclusion

Acknowledgments
The research was supported by Shenzhen city science and technology research and development projects. Topic: Research on the relationship between diet induced obesity rat bile acids and intestinal microflora. Number: JCYJ20130402112843373.

Introduction
Nephrology disease is kidney based disease of many patients. Nephrology diseases mainly include acute nephritis, chronic kidney disease and urinary tract infections. Nephrology disease can lead to decline in patients’ own immune system, resulting in poor application condition of patients and serious infections. Urinary tract infection is a common infection of nephrology disease, which causes a very serious impact on health of patients with nephrology disease. Therefore, analysis of pathogen distribution of nephrology patients with urinary tract infection should be strengthened, so as to realize diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection, and effectively improve treatment of urinary tract infections, which can promote effective recovery of nephrology patients with urinary tract infection. The pathogens under microscope is shown in Fig. 1.

Materials and methods

Results

Discussion and conclusion
All in all, pathogen distribution of nephrology patients with urinary tract infections shows certain characteristics. E. coli is one of the most important pathogens. Study of distribution of pathogens and necessary analysis of drug resistance in patients can provide some guidance for clinical treatment work, enable patients to receive effective treatment, and prevent disease progression in patients and thus is with very significant clinical significance.

Introduction
Sepsis, a common complication of burn, trauma, hypoxia, and post-surgery, is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome caused by infection (Tjardes and Neugebauer, 2002; Lever and Mackenzie, 2007). With relatively high morbidity mortality, sepsis is considered to be the leading cause of death of patient in theintensivecareunit (ICU) (Tjardes and Neugebauer, 2002; Levy et al., 2001; Angus and van der Poll, 2013). Multiple organ function impairment may occur at severe sepsis and ultimately develop to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (Marshould, 2001). Lung is one of the most vulnerableorgans at sepsis with acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) which occurs at early stage and is with high morbidity (Hudson et al., 1995; Husak et al., 2010; Angus et al., 2001). The severe pulmonary inflammation, vascular permeability, diffuses infiltration in both lungs, and pulmonary alveoli edema, hypoxemia and lungcompliance decrease are the characteristics for ALI (Villar et al., 2011). Both intra pulmonary factors and extrinsic pulmonary factors make contribution to the pathogenesis of ALI/ARDS. The intra factors include aspirationpneumonia, severe diffuse lung infection, pulmonary contusion, and extrinsic factors include sepsis caused by extrinsic pulmonary infection, wound shock and burn (Brun-Buisson et al., 2004; Gattinoni et al., 1998; Sheu et al., 2010). Among these, sepsis is the most common cause of ALI (Suntharalingam et al., 2001; Rocco and Zin, 2005). Currently, there are still no effective drugs and therapies for the treatment of sepsis-associated ALI/ARDS. The main method is supportive treatment such as mechanicalventilation for respiration support. However, increasing evidence has demonstrated that mechanical ventilation brings damage to organs when improving the oxygenation for the patients. Mechanical tension caused by excessive mechanicalventilation, is an important cause for lung injury (Rocco and Zin, 2005; Martin et al., 2003) and could often cause inflammation in lungs. Therefore, development for new method of curing ALI caused by sepsis other than mechanicalventilation is imperative.

buy KPT-185 br Introduction At the end of

Introduction
At the end of the last century, the World Health Organization introduced relevant provisions on obesity, regarding that obesity is a disease. In recent years, with the continuous improvement of people’s living standards and change in dietary structure, incidence of obesity has shown an increasing trend and obesity has become a serious health killer. Relevant research shows that obesity is often accompanied with chronic buy KPT-185 and emergence of oxidative stress in patients. Tumor necrosis factor-α is the major protein associated with obesity, which plays a very important role in regulating body fat metabolism (Suo and Wang, 2015). Obesity can cause serious increase in vivo tumor necrosis factor α content in patients. Research at this stage considers that this phenomenon is mainly related to low-grade inflammation and natural immunity (Liu and Liu, 2012). The author conducted meticulous research on 120 male SD rats, and applied rat test results in human clinical therapy (Song et al., 2014). The structure chart of tumor necrosis factor α is shown in Fig. 1.

Materials and methods

Results

Discussion and conclusion

Acknowledgments
The research was supported by Shenzhen city science and technology research and development projects. Topic: Research on the relationship between diet induced obesity rat bile acids and intestinal microflora. Number: JCYJ20130402112843373.

Introduction
Nephrology disease is kidney based disease of many patients. Nephrology diseases mainly include acute nephritis, chronic kidney disease and urinary tract infections. Nephrology disease can lead to decline in patients’ own immune system, resulting in poor application condition of patients and serious infections. Urinary tract infection is a common infection of nephrology disease, which causes a very serious impact on health of patients with nephrology disease. Therefore, analysis of pathogen distribution of nephrology patients with urinary tract infection should be strengthened, so as to realize diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection, and effectively improve treatment of urinary tract infections, which can promote effective recovery of nephrology patients with urinary tract infection. The pathogens under microscope is shown in Fig. 1.

Materials and methods

Results

Discussion and conclusion
All in all, pathogen distribution of nephrology patients with urinary tract infections shows certain characteristics. E. coli is one of the most important pathogens. Study of distribution of pathogens and necessary analysis of drug resistance in patients can provide some guidance for clinical treatment work, enable patients to receive effective treatment, and prevent disease progression in patients and thus is with very significant clinical significance.

Introduction
Sepsis, a common complication of burn, trauma, hypoxia, and post-surgery, is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome caused by infection (Tjardes and Neugebauer, 2002; Lever and Mackenzie, 2007). With relatively high morbidity mortality, sepsis is considered to be the leading cause of death of patient in theintensivecareunit (ICU) (Tjardes and Neugebauer, 2002; Levy et al., 2001; Angus and van der Poll, 2013). Multiple organ function impairment may occur at severe sepsis and ultimately develop to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (Marshould, 2001). Lung is one of the most vulnerableorgans at sepsis with acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) which occurs at early stage and is with high morbidity (Hudson et al., 1995; Husak et al., 2010; Angus et al., 2001). The severe pulmonary inflammation, vascular permeability, diffuses infiltration in both lungs, and pulmonary alveoli edema, hypoxemia and lungcompliance decrease are the characteristics for ALI (Villar et al., 2011). Both intra pulmonary factors and extrinsic pulmonary factors make contribution to the pathogenesis of ALI/ARDS. The intra factors include aspirationpneumonia, severe diffuse lung infection, pulmonary contusion, and extrinsic factors include sepsis caused by extrinsic pulmonary infection, wound shock and burn (Brun-Buisson et al., 2004; Gattinoni et al., 1998; Sheu et al., 2010). Among these, sepsis is the most common cause of ALI (Suntharalingam et al., 2001; Rocco and Zin, 2005). Currently, there are still no effective drugs and therapies for the treatment of sepsis-associated ALI/ARDS. The main method is supportive treatment such as mechanicalventilation for respiration support. However, increasing evidence has demonstrated that mechanical ventilation brings damage to organs when improving the oxygenation for the patients. Mechanical tension caused by excessive mechanicalventilation, is an important cause for lung injury (Rocco and Zin, 2005; Martin et al., 2003) and could often cause inflammation in lungs. Therefore, development for new method of curing ALI caused by sepsis other than mechanicalventilation is imperative.

The KCOT is one of the most aggressive odontogenic cysts

The KCOT is one of the most aggressive odontogenic cysts. It can become quite large because of its ability for significant expansion, extension into adjacent muscarinic receptor antagonists and rapid growth (Morgan et al., 2005). Different studies showed the incidence of KCOT to be 3–11% of the odontogenic cysts (Chuong et al., 1982; Payne, 1972). Generally, KCOT are solitary lesions unless they are associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Payne, 1972; Chirapathomsakul and Sastravaha, 2006).
KCOT arises from cell rests of the dental lamina (Neville et al., 1995). Histopathologically, KCOT typically shows a thin, friable wall, which is often difficult to enucleate from the bone in one piece, and have small satellite cysts within the fibrous wall. Therefore odontogenic keratocysts often tend to recur after treatment (Brannon, 1977; Gang et al., 2006). Radiographically KCOT demonstrates a well-defined unilocular or multilocular radiolucency with smooth and often corticated margins. In 25–40% of cases, there is an unerupted tooth involved in the lesion. KCOT tend to grow in the anteroposterior direction within the medullary cavity of the bone without causing obvious bone expansion causing its delayed observation by the patients (Brannon, 1977; Gang et al., 2006; Neville et al., 2002).
The treatment of the KCOT remains controversial. Treatments are generally classified as conservative or aggressive. Conservative treatment generally includes simple enucleation, with or without curettage, or marsupialization. Aggressive treatment generally includes peripheral ostectomy, chemical curettage with Carnoy’s solution, cryotherapy, or electrocautery and resection (Morgan et al., 2005; Meiselman, 1994; Williams and Connor, 1994; Bataineh and Al Qudah, 1998; Blanas et al., 2000).
The choice of treatment should be based on multiple factors; patient age, size and location of the cyst, soft tissue involvement, history of previous treatment and a histological variant of the lesion. The goal is to choose the treatment modality that carries the lowest risk of recurrence and the least morbidity (Rogerson, 1991; Williams, 1991).

Decompression and marsupialization
Decompression of a cyst involves any technique that relieves the pressure within the cyst as this pressure is the way by which the cyst grows by expansion. Decompression can be performed by making a small opening in the cyst and keeping it open with a drain (Pogrel, 2005; Eyre and Zakrzewska, 1985; Brondum and Jensen, 1991).
Marsupialization, on the other hand, involves converting the cyst into a pouch so the cyst is decompressed, but this is a more definitive treatment than decompression as it exposes the cyst lining to the oral environment. Mandibular cysts are normally marsupialized into the oral cavity, while maxillary cysts can also be marsupialized into the maxillary sinus or nasal cavity, as well as the oral cavity (Pogrel, 2005, 2003; Seward and Seward, 1969).
Decompression and marsupialization of cysts is probably the earliest recommended treatment and was first suggested by Partsch in the late 19th century. In many parts of the world, marsupialization is still described as a Partsch I procedure (the Partsch II procedure is enucleation and primary closure) (Partsch, 1892, 1910).
Although decompression or marsupialization was not recommended as treatment for the KCOT by some authors, because it was thought that the pathologic tissue would be left in situ (Pogrel and Jordan, 2004), decompression or marsupialization has been recommended in a number of studies as a technique that allows partial decrease in size in the KCOT so that vital structures like teeth or the inferior alveolar nerve can be preserved, then the KCOT was certainly enucleated (Pogrel and Jordan, 2004; Partridge and Towers, 1987; Marker et al., 1996).
Those authors who are against the use of marsupialization or decompression for the treatment of KCOT depend on, that this technique does not remove completely the whole cystic covering, which would lead to a continuation of epithelial proliferation and facilitate the recurrence (Bataineh and Al Qudah, 1998; Maurette et al., 2006). Brondum and Jensen (1991) reported a recurrence rate of 25% in 32 (OKCT) patients treated with decompression of the lesion. On the other hand, other studies have shown that marsupialization of KCOT can be followed by total resolution of the lesion without any further surgery (Eyre and Zakrzewska, 1985; Pogrel and Jordan, 2004; Hopper, 1982).