br Discussion False penile fractures are caused by bleeding within

Discussion
False penile fractures are caused by bleeding within the soft purchase Digoxigenin-11-ddUTP of the penis, while tunica albuginea is intact. This may be due to injury to penile dorsal artery, deep dorsal vein, superficial dorsal vein, or nonspecific dartos bleeding [2]. In the largest study of false penile fractures, Bar‐Yosef et al. reported that nine out of 17 procedures done for false penile fractures had dorsal vein rupture [3]. Feki et al. reported 16 patients with false penile fracture, and 10 cases had nonspecific dartos bleeding and reported ecchymosis in the pubic and scrotal area [1]. El‐Assmy et al. reported an absence of snapping sound and gradual postinjury detumesence in 88% and 17.7% of his patients, respectively [4]. Although present in false penile fractures, Bar‐yosef et al. reported extensive hematoma and penile shaft deviations were more common in true penile fracture [3].
The use of imaging modalities during the workup of penile fractures has been debated extensively. Ultrasonography, with or without color Doppler, cavernosography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have all been utilized with mixed results. Ultrasonography can be helpful in localization of injury, but the accuracy of the results depends on the proficiency of the ultrasonographer [4]. However, it can give false negative results when the tear is small [5]. MRI gives the best results for soft tissue evaluation, but it is cost‐prohibitive, and availability restricts its use [4,6]. Cavernosography has also been used, but the drawback is that it is an invasive procedure with increased risk of infections, allergic reaction to contrast [5-7].
Conservative management has been described for management of false penile fracture when the practitioner is certain that there are no cavernosal injuries. This includes the use of penile splinting with pressure dressing, ice packs, and analgesics [4]. Studies have demonstrated that conservative management for false penile fracture can lead to abscess formation, scar or plaque formation, and erectile dysfunction [8-10]. Surgical exploration, evacuation of hematoma, and ligation of the bleeding vessel lead to satisfactory results and preservation of erectile function in the majority of the patients with venous injury without any complications reported at this time [3].