In patients with BC the group from Lund Sweden performed

In patients with BC, the group from Lund, Sweden, performed a study aiming to detect the sentinel LNs in 75 patients who underwent RC and PLND for BC. In 10 patients (13%), no sentinel LN could be detected by collimator. A median of 40 LNs per patient were removed. Thirty-two patients showed LN metastases at histopathology. In 6 of these 32 patients, LN metastases were only detected at histopathology and not by collimator, resulting in a false-negative rate of 19%.
In patients with PC, the group from Augsburg, Germany, combined preoperative planar films with intraoperative gamma probe identification of sentinel LNs after transrectal injection of 99mtechnetium into the prostate gland. In 228 men who underwent RP and PLND for high-risk PC (prostate-specific antigen [PSA] > 20 ng/mL or biopsy Gleason score 8-10), a median of 18 LNs were resected per patient. LN metastases were found in 96 men at histopathology. In 26 patients (27%), LN metastases were found only at histopathology and not by collimator. If the sentinel (radioactive) LNs had been the only nodes resected, then approximately one-third of LN metastases would not have been removed. Therefore, the high rate of metastases in nonradioactive LNs makes this group of patients not suitable for a limited radio-guided LN dissection or focused poly ic therapy.
Lymphoscintigraphy in BC and PC has further drawbacks: the shining-through effect (sentinel LN visualization is impeded by radioactivity from the primary injection site and 99mtechnetium- containing urine in the bladder); the procedure has to be performed in a shielded room; the preoperative SPECT has a limited resolution; the bulky collimator for intraoperative nodal search limits access to nodes and therefore smaller LNs may be missed; and last but not least, it entails significantly higher costs. These drawbacks and especially the high false-negative rate for the detection of metastatic nodes are the major reasons why the SN technique has not gained wide acceptance.

Fluorescent Dyes
The data on the use of fluorescent dyes for LN imaging in BC are limited. In 12 patients who underwent open RC and PLND (median of 17 LNs removed per patient) for BC, ICG lymphangiography was performed. Five patients had LN metastases in histopathology but none had metastases in the sentinel LN.
In another study on 10 patients who underwent robotically assisted RC and PLND (a median of 16 LNs removed per patient) for BC, the authors report a sensitivity of 75% with ICG in detecting metastatic nodes. One quarter of metastatic LNs were therefore missed when relying on ICG node fluorescence alone.
Recently a group showed that not only where the fluorescent dye is applied (serosally or mucosally bycystoscopic injection) but also the filling status of the bladder may play a crucial role, underlining possible pitfalls associated with the injection technique of fluorescent dyes into the bladder wall.
The experience is greater with fluorescent dyes for LN imaging in PC. In 50 patients who underwent robotically assisted RP and PLND for PC, the mean number of LNs resected was 14. In a quarter of patients, no sentinel LNs could be detected. LN metastases were found in 4 patients. In a recently published series of 38 patients who underwent laparoscopic RP and PLND (median number of resected LNs was 18) for intermediate- or high-risk PC, the detection rate of sentinel LNs and metastases with the help of ICG was 97% and 98%, respectively. Without performing an extended backup PLND, however, the number of missed LNs also containing metastases cannot be known.

Pelvic Nodal Imaging Using MRI or CT
CT and conventional MRI are widely used for preoperative detection of LN metastases in patients with BC or PC. Their diagnostic accuracy, however, is less than optimal. In BC and PC, CT may miss 30% to 40% of LN metastases. Thus, upstaging of clinical N0 to pathological N+ is frequently found despite negative preoperative imaging. These imaging techniques rely mainly on morphologic criteria (LN size, shape, and internal architecture), although the major shortcomings of these criteria are readily apparent. The size of nonmetastatic LNs varies widely and may overlap with the size of LN metastases. There is a consequent lack of consensus regarding the normal limit for size in the diagnosis of pelvic LN metastases. Further, the normal range for LN size varies even within different anatomical regions as well as for different cancers. Using the criterion of a short-axis diameter larger than 6 mm on CT images of patients with PC, the sensitivity and specificity for the detection of a malignant node were found to be 78% and 97%, respectively. If the threshold is changed to a short-axis diameter larger than 5 mm for metastases (in pelvic malignancies), the sensitivity may improve slightly to 86% at the price of a lower specificity of 78%. So small metastases often remain undetected and enlarged LNs due to reactive hyperplasia may be misinterpreted as metastatic LNs. It is obvious that novel imaging techniques are needed to identify the correct nodal status.

Materials and Methods Statistical analysis was

Materials and Methods
Statistical analysis was conducted by IBM SPSS Statistics Version 22 (Armonk, NY). An independent t test for continuous variables and a chi-square test for qualitative variables were performed to confirm homogeneity within the group variables as well as to correlate infection and explantation rates with various risk factors. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to predict explantation and infection of the implant using both groups separately and various risk factors (diabetic disease, history of pelvic irradiation, prior surgery for urethral stenosis, lengths of administered antibiotic, postoperative bleeding, impaired wound healing, mechanical failure of device, urethral erosion) as predictor. Infection-free survival in comparison to the non-IZ and IZ groups was estimated by Kaplan-Meier method and analyzed by the log-rank test.

Comment
Device infection is a greatly feared complication in prosthetic surgery that commonly leads toward device infection, and has a major impact on affected patients. Regarding the AUS, the infection rate varies between 0.5% and 10.6% and occurs either immediately after order ALW-II-41-27 with a mean of 3.7 months or delayed mostly within the first 2 years. The most frequent organism of deviceinfection in genitourinary prosthesis is the Staphylococcus species.
The pathophysiology of device-associated infections is well understood. It depends on device, host, and bacterial characteristics. Because of various pathophysiological processes, the existence of a biofilm is the basic survival mechanism for bacteria in order to resist external and internal environmental factors. The bacterial colonization of the device itself does not only precede clinical infection but also can adversely affect the function of the device. In these cases, frequently no clinical evidence of infection is present. Therefore, infection rates of medical devices are most probably underestimated due to the lack of clinical signs of infection, inadequate sample acquirement for antimicrobial cultures, or the failure of current microbiological techniques to consistently cultivate organisms in a biofilm.
Infection of AUS is not always properly defined in literature. Frequently, infection of the device is referred only to primary implant surgery and therefore is limited to the first months after surgery. Later infections are referred to as secondary infections due to urethral erosion or urethral manipulation and are often excluded. However, in a recent long-term follow-up study of AUS, 2 infections are described after 3.5 and 13 years. Thus, there is currently no consensus whether or not infection is causing erosion or vice versa. Furthermore, the time frame of postoperative device infection and the relationship with urethral erosions are not clearly defined in the current literature. Lai et al retrospectively investigated 218 patients and included wound infection as well as infection of the device without erosion as infection. Kim et al reported perioperative infection and infection separately but did not define the criteria to distinguish these findings clearly. Because of the fact that device erosion and infection are often coherent, many publications report combined erosion and infection rates.
In consideration of the pathophysiology of device infection, resistance mechanisms of bacteria due to biofilm formation, and clinical data, we gathered all documented device infections irrespective of time of infection or existence of concomitant urethral erosion. Furthermore, chronic device infection without clinical signs of infection might also be the cause of, or aggravate the incidence of urethral erosion as well. This raises the question whether or not antibiotic coating of the device can diminish infection and erosion rates. Thus, urethral erosion was taken into consideration in the current study as well. Additionally, combined infection and erosion rates were investigated and an early onset infection within the first 6 months was taken into consideration as well. Furthermore, infection of the device normally leads to temporary or permanent explantation. As chronic infection without clinical signs could lead not only to urethral erosion but also to dysfunctions of the device, we could expect a difference in explantation rates. In test cross study population, no statistically significant differences in infection, early onset infection, infection and erosion, or explantation rates could be identified. These results support the evidence that the antibiotic coating does not significantly reduce infection rates. The overall infection and explantation rates correlated well with current rates in other publications ranging from 0.5%-10.6% to 9.5%-64%, respectively.

Although histology remains a mainstay for diagnosis

Although histology remains a mainstay for diagnosis and classification, there has been a recent emphasis on gene translocation to assist with risk stratification. Fusion of the PAX7 or PAX3 genes (on chromosome 1 and 2, respectively,) with the FOXO1 gene (on chromosome 13) is seen in most of the alveolar RMS and portends a worse prognosis. However, approximately 20% of alveolar subtypes do not demonstrate this gene fusion [16]. Following the adoption of the International Classification of Rhabdomyosarcoma (ICR), the (COG-STS) Committee observed an increase in both the number of cases classified as alveolar RMS as well as the frequency of fusion-negative tumors. Rudzinski et al. [17] demonstrated that when the fusion translocation was used in the classification criteria, 33% of cases with original alveolar histology were reclassified as embryonal and 82% of confirmed alveolar RMS cases were noted to be fusion positive. The prognostic ability of this gene fusion will be incorporated into future clinical trials to aid with risk stratification.

Staging, grouping, and risk stratification
The classification of RMS malignancies is unique and can be confusing due to the 2 different prognostic systems used by the IRSG during their clinical trials. Risk stratification relies on both a pretreatment (Tumor node metastasis [TNM]) staging system and a surgical or pathologic clinical grouping system based on the extent of disease following initial surgery. The 2 classifications are a representation of the evolution in the management of RMS during IRS studies. Early on, patients with RMS were primarily treated with surgical excision. Therefore, during IRS-I/II, patients were separated into prognostic categories, referred to as “groups,” based on the extent of disease remaining after primary surgical intervention, as shown in Table 1. With the evolution of multimodal treatment there was a need to classify patients into pretreatment prognostic categories. Before initiation of IRS-III, a pretreatment TNM staging system was introduced, so that outcomes could be accurately assessed based on disease presentation at diagnosis. The TNM staging system is based on tumor size, invasiveness, nodal status, and presence of distant metastasis, as shown in Table 2. In addition to TNM staging, location of the tumor was also noted to be a significant prognostic indicator. Tumor location has been divided into favorable and unfavorable sites, unfavorable sites including p2y receptor or prostate, parameningeal head and neck sites, the extremities, and trunk, as shown in Table 3. PT-RMS can be either stage I or IV given its location as a favorable primary site. Risk stratification was introduced during IRS-V, in which the study combined stage, group, and histological subtype to place patients into different therapeutic protocols according to risk of recurrence, as shown in Table 4. The 3-year failure-free survival (FFS) rate was 88% for low-risk patients, 55 ± 76% for intermediate-risk patients, and less than 30% for high-risk patients [18].
In summary, RMS staging is multifactorial and outcomes are reported based on 3 different classifications.
Conventional CT scan has traditionally been used for evaluation of the retroperitoneum and current recommendations are that all patients undergo thin-cut (5mm for age<10 years, 7mm for age>10 years) abdominal or pelvic CT with double contrast to identify regional retroperitoneal lymph node involvement for staging purposes. Regional lymph nodes include the ipsilateral iliac and retroperitoneal nodes up to the hilum of the ipsilateral kidney. Studies have demonstrated that of the enlarged retroperitoneal nodes observed on imaging, 65% to 94% are confirmed on pathologic review [19]. In a study, 14% of patients had false-negative staging CT scans, whereas 34% had false-positive CT scans following retroperitoneal lymph node dissection ( RPLND) [20].
18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/ CT has been recently studied as a more sensitive tool in staging and restaging of patients with RMS. Tateishi and colleagues compared the sensitivity of FDG PET/CT to that from conventional imaging (CI) (whole body CT, bone scan, and MRI) of the primary site. They demonstrated that using PET/CT, M stage was correctly assigned in 89% of patients compared with 63% when CI was used. There was also improved accuracy with nodal metastases being identified in 86% of patients undergoing PET/CT compared with 54% undergoing CI [21]. PET/CT has also been shown to be a useful tool in the assessment of chemotherapy response. A retrospective review by Thomas et al. demonstrated that PET/CT was able to identify 69% of complete responses compared with only 8% when CI was performed [22]. As it pertains to PT-RMS, PET/CT may be a useful tool to identify patients who would not benefit from a postchemotherapy RPLND, thereby decreasing overtreatment. In cases of metastatic disease, apart from radiological imaging a formal evaluation should include a bone marrow aspirate, bone scan, and lumbar puncture for cerebrospinal fluid.

br Vesicoureteral reflux VUR is

Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a relatively common disease in children. It affects 0.4%-1.8% of children. Diagnosis of VUR is mainly radiologic via voiding cystourethrography, and the severity of reflux is classified according to the grades of the International Reflux Study in Children. The reflux grade is an important diagnostic tool for determining the treatment strategy and prognosis of VUR. In addition to reflux grades, other factors have recently been reported. Recently, VUR is proved to be influenced by the severity of distal ureteral dilatation and its impact on the spontaneous resolution of VUR.
Many reports have studied the efficacy of endoscopic injection treatment in the context of primary VUR. Thus, endoscopic injection is now considered to be a valid alternative to antibiotic prophylaxis and even to open surgery. Moreover, endoscopic treatment provides a minimally invasive day care procedure for the treatment of VUR. Although there have been concerns regarding the cost effectiveness of endoscopic treatment, most of the families opted for endoscopic treatment based on the reasonable success rates and the noninvasive nature of the treatment superseding the cost constraints. Considering the ability of ureteral diameter (UD) in predicting the reflux resolution, we hypothesized that UD could affect the clinical outcome after endoscopic injection. Selection of children with primary VUR who are amenable for endoscopic injection is crucial for cost-benefit ratio. Hence, this study was undertaken to test the predictive value of the distal UD on reflux resolution after endoscopic injection.
Materials and Methods
The standard protocol of VCUG at our institution was applied for all children in our study, which should include preliminary film before catheterization for assessment of the spine and the pelvis (to exclude patients with vertebral anomalies). Careful catheterization, then filling the pitavastatin to the age-expected bladder capacity (bladder capacity = [age in years + 2] × 30) is performed. Anteroposterior imaging of the bladder is performed during early filling; little or no imaging is necessary during intermediate filling. When bladder filling is complete, steep oblique images that are centered on the ureterovesical junction should be obtained. If reflux is observed, the ipsilateral renal fossa should be imaged before voiding. Postvoiding images are taken. In children with a high-grade reflux, delayed abdominal imaging performed about 15 minutes after voiding can help differentiate simple reflux from reflux associated with obstruction at the ureteropelvic or ureterovesical junction. Grading of VUR was defined by the International Reflux System.
All preoperative and postoperative VCUGs were reviewed by 1 experienced radiologist (D.S.). The UD ratio (UDR) was calculated as follows: the largest UD within the false pelvis (defined as the area below the most superior aspect of the ilia) was measured in millimeters; this measurement was divided by the distance from the bottom of the L1 vertebral body to the top of the L3 vertebral body to control for patient size and radiographic magnification (Figs. 1, 2).

Results
Seventy patients, a total of 17 boys and 53 girls, were enrolled in this study. Table 1 lists patient characteristics. Mean age was 5.9 years (1.2-13 years). The indications for obtaining the initial VCUG were recurrent urinary tract infection in 40 children and antenatal hydronephrosis in 20 children. Grade III presented in 37 patients (53%), and 33 patients (47%) were of grade IV. Both sides were equally affected (50%). Mean distal UD was 5.5 mm (2.5-13 mm). Mean UDR was 37.8% (18%-70%). Endoscopic Macroplastique injection was performed in all. We performed subureteric injection in 60 patients (86%), whereas intraureteric injection was performed in 10 patients. No postoperative complications were detected. Resolution of reflux occurs in 32 of 37 patients (86%) in grade III and in 26 of 33 patients (78%) in grade IV. We studied the effect of grade, UD, and UDR on success after endoscopic injection, and a significant association of UD and UDR with reflux resolution on VCUG was demonstrated on logistic regression analysis (P <.89, .007, and .001, respectively; Table 2).

Taking into account that approximately of these women will undergo

Taking into account that approximately 4–10% of these women will undergo an anti-incontinence procedure at some point in their life and that the prevalence of sexual dysfunction is approximately 50% in women with some degree of incontinence, the increasing use of anti-incontinence techniques, such as tension-free transvaginal (TVT) or transobturator (TOT) tapes, should aim to improve the quality of life. Considering that female sexual dysfunction is caused by urinary incontinence, these techniques—in theory—should have a positive effect in the sexual area too. However, the evidence to date is controversial, as some studies report that sexual function following anti-incontinence surgery has deteriorated, while others evidence an obvious improvement in sexual function after the surgical procedure. Up to date in Colombia there is no evidence regarding what happens to the female sexual function after performing this type of procedures.

Methods and materials
Patients were divided into two groups according to pre-established criteria for using the transobturator or transvaginal technique. Patients were invited to participate in the study after a clear explanation of its characteristics, risks, and benefits, through an agreement to participate. The inclusion criteria of the study were reviewed: candidates for anti-incontinence surgery with TOT or TVT; urodynamics that evidenced stress urinary incontinence with Abdominal Leak Point Pressure (ALPP) greater than 60cm H2O according to the McGuire classification; negative glycine transporter culture; presence of defects in the anterior, apical, and posterior compartments according to the POP-Q classification up to grade ii–iii, and sexually active women. Women with evidence of intrinsic sphincter deficiency (defined as ALPP less than 60cm H2O with little or no urethral mobility) were excluded, as well as patients with a high probability of loss to follow-up or with low engagement (located in rural areas), patients presenting with pregnancy, coagulopathies, or mental deficiencies that prevented understanding the conditions and objectives of the program, and those who declared that they did not want to participate in the study.
Patients were summoned on the day of the surgery according to the schedule of activities. Demographic data were recorded and a follow-up sheet was created for each patient. All patients were given the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire validated in English and Spanish. This questionnaire consists of 19 questions that evaluate six domains: desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain during sexual intercourse. Each question has 5 or 6 answer options, with a score ranging from 0 to 5. The sum of the scores of each domain is multiplied by a factor and the final score is the arithmetic sum of the domains: the higher the score, the better the sexual function. The total score ranges from 2 to 36 (Table 1). This questionnaire had to be completed before the procedure. Postoperative control was done at 8 days and patients were recommended to resume sexual activity at least 3 weeks after the procedure. Control was carried out at 3 and 6 months after the surgery with the FSFI questionnaire and with a questionnaire designed by the group of researchers that included 7 questions assessing urinary incontinence, urine leakage during intercourse, the quality of life in the sexual area, and satisfaction with the surgical procedure.

Results
A total of 22 sexually active women with stress urinary incontinence were treated with tension-free vaginal tape: 20 with the TOT technique and 2 with the TVT technique. All 22 patients completed both the FSFI questionnaire and the questionnaire designed by the group of researchers. The demographic variables of the population are described in Table 2. Among the variables, it is worth highlighting age, which was 48.3±6.46 years—which is within the age range of other studies that have evaluated female sexual function before and after implanting tension-free tapes, and ALPP, which was 85.5±17.2cm H2O. Patients with intrinsic sphincter deficiency, as well as sexually inactive women were excluded. POP-Q was 0.28±0.45, which means that in this cohort there were no women with POP less than 1cm above the level of the hymen (grade i).FSFI showed an improvement in female sexual function in all domains when comparing preoperative and postoperative scores at 3 and 6 months after surgery. The total score of preoperative FSFI was 21.57±3.53, while at 3 months after surgery it was 26.05±3, and at 6 months after surgery 27.28±5.03, which shows a difference of almost 7 points of improvement in the FSFI score when comparing sexual function before surgery and at 6 months after the procedure. The results were statistically significant, with P=0.0001 when comparing results before surgery and at 3 months after procedure, and P=0.001 when comparing scores before surgery and at 6 months after surgery. When evaluating patients individually, 20 of them (90%) reported improvement in the overall assessment of female sexual function, while only 2 (10%) showed deterioration in the total FSFI score. One of these patients reported that her main problem was not connected to urine leakage, but it was related to vaginal lubrication, which significantly deteriorated the quality of sexual intercourse and the female sexual function score in FSFI (Table 3).The questionnaire developed by the group of researchers evaluated urinary continence, urine leakage during sexual intercourse, and overall satisfaction with surgery. We found that, despite surgery, 2 patients persisted with involuntary loss of urine at 3 and 6 months after the procedure; one patient achieved continence at 3 months, but at 6 months after surgery she presented again with stress incontinence; the other patient persisted with incontinence at 3 months after surgery, but at the 6-month follow-up she no longer had involuntary leakage of urine. This represents a total of 4 patients, corresponding to 20% of the participants. With regard to urine leakage during sexual intercourse, 100% of patients suffered from it before surgery and only 2 patients (10%) persisted with leakage after the procedure. Regarding overall satisfaction with surgery, 21 patients (95%) were satisfied with the procedure and only 5% reported feeling unsatisfied with surgery.

As with any measurements two

As with any measurements, two consecutive ALS datasets with a sufficient time gap between them provide means for detecting changes in the study object. The change is the difference between the two datasets, which means that the only distinguishable changes are those that have occurred between the acquisitions of datasets compared. In the case of individual trees, changes such as tree growth can be captured (Yu et al., 2004). In addition to monitoring of living trees, change detection methods can also be utilized to monitor those trees that have been cut down (Yu et al., 2004) or damaged by snow (Vastaranta et al., 2012a,b), for example. This suggests that characteristics of newly formed CWD can also be estimated with ALS techniques.

Materials

Methods

Results

Discussion

Conclusions

Acknowledgement
The research was made in cooperation with the Public Works Department of the City of Helsinki and Academy of Finland\’s Center of Excellence in Laser Scanning Reseach (CoE-LaSR). The work was also supported in part by the Finnish Cultural Foundation under Grant 00140958.

Introduction
In the United States, cabling is a common arboricultural practice intended to reduce the likelihood of failure of weakly attached or overextended branches (Smiley and Lilly, 2007), yet there are few rigorous empirical data upon which standards (Anonymous, 2006) and best practices (Smiley and Lilly, 2007) are based. Studies have examined aspects of cabling to determine withdrawal resistance (Kane, 2011; Smiley, 2011) and the extent of decay (Smiley, 1998; Kane and Ryan, 2002) associated with hardware to anchor cables, as well as alternatives to traditional support systems (Stobbe et al., 2000; Greco et al., 2004). Recent work has also investigated the effect of cabling on annual radial increment (Kane and Autio, 2014), but there are no studies that have considered whether installing a cable actually reduces the likelihood of failure. Smiley et al. (2000) showed that installing a brace rod significantly increased the static force required to break branch attachments, and changed the location of failure on the supported branches. However, it 5z manufacturer is not clear that these results would apply when trees are subjected to wind loads. To understand the likelihood of failure from wind-induced sways, a dynamic approach must be employed.
Trees are modeled as flexible structures while attempting to identify the mechanisms by which oscillation-induced bending stress due to wind (Vogel, 1996; James, 2003) or arboricultural operations (Kane et al., 2009) is dissipated. Natural frequency and damping ratio are important mechanical parameters that govern the dynamic behavior of a structure. The natural frequency (ω, in rad/s) of a single-degree-of-freedom system is defined as:where k is the system\’s stiffness and m is its mass (Chopra, 2007). The natural frequency can be written in Hz asDamping is a measure of a structure\’s ability to dissipate the kinetic and strain energy resulting from dynamic motion and is often expressed as the proportion of critical damping, c, or damping ratio (ζ):where c is the coefficient of viscous damping. Damping ratio is often determined from experimental time histories of the structure\’s free response—its oscillations in the absence of a forcing function. The logarithmic decrement is a common method for determining damping ratio of trees, and other methods are also available (Moore and Maguire, 2004). Milne (1991) attributed damping in trees to three factors: collisions between crowns of neighboring trees, aerodynamic drag, and viscous damping of material. Others have described the effect of mass or multiple-resonance damping in trees (James et al., 2006; Spatz et al., 2007).
Previous studies have explored the relationship between tree morphology and both the natural frequency and damping ratio of trees. Consistent with dynamic beam theory, for many species of conifers, natural frequency is directly proportional to the ratio of diameter at breast height (DBH) to tree height (H) squared (Moore and Maguire, 2004; Jonsson et al., 2007). Predictive models relating damping ratio to tree morphology have not proven successful, presumably because the complex mechanisms that contribute to damping during wind- or artificially-induced dynamic motion are not well understood (Spatz and Theckes, 2013). However, Kane et al. (2014) found that crown width predicted damping ratio of large, open-grown sugar maples (Acer saccharum L.).

NHS-SS-Biotin The concentrations of the trace elements Co and Mn in

The concentrations of the trace elements Co and Mn in the leaves were comparable to those found in conditions of heavy traffic and industrial activities (Lorenzini et al., 2006). However, the Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn concentrations were lower than those in polluted urban areas (Aničić et al., 2011). In the bark, the Cr, Co, Fe, Ni and Zn contents were NHS-SS-Biotin lower than those reported by Guéguen et al. (2011) for sites exposed to various anthropogenic emissions. The concentrations of other elements were below the thresholds found in analogous studies (Catinon et al., 2011). Higher contents of Cd, Fe, Pb, Sn and Zn were in lichens than in leaves, NHS-SS-Biotin and tree rings (Fig. 2), confirming the attitude of lichens to accumulate higher levels of pollutants (Aprile et al., 2010).
The retrospective analysis showed that none of the signals of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in the wood of Q. pubescens were permanent for the whole activity period of the incinerator. The traces obtained were probably the result of noise around the detection limits of the analytical method and there are no reasons for concern. Nevertheless, the incineration of RDF could be a potential source of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in the environment (e.g., Ren and Zheng, 2009), and long-term monitoring is a wise precaution. The dioxin contents in plants may be closely related to the environments in which the plants grow (Jou et al., 2007; Gworek et al., 2013). Potentially, they could accumulate in tree rings (Padilla and Anderson, 2002), but biomonitoring programs have rarely attempted to detect this pollutant in tree rings.

Conclusion

Conflict of interest

Acknowledgements
The authors would like to extend their sincere thanks to Carmen Giancola (Università del Molise) and Angelo Rita (Università della Basilicata) for data analysis, and to Silvia Dingwall for language editing. This work has been funded by the Joint Advisory Committee (OCC), Energonut and Herambiente. The research was conducted within the COST FP1106 (STReESS − Studying tree responses to extreme events: a synthesiS).

Introduction

Running has been marketed in the popular press since the 1960s as an individual fitness sport requiring no equipment but a pair of shoes (Latham, 2015). The argument that one can jog almost anywhere is a cornerstone of the movement and its ideology (see Bowerman and Harris, 1967; Fixx, 1977; Sheehan, 1978/2013; Bean, 2006/2009). Another key argument frequently put forward is that running is “in our nature”, so if only we step out of our habits and leave the decadent technologies of modern life behind, there is a possibility of the healthy bodily experience of what we were born to do (Bean, 2006/2009; Gotaas, 2009; McDougall, 2010; Åstrand et al., 2011; Whalley, 2012; see Plymire, 2006 and Bajiĉ, 2014 for a discussion). Contemporary popular writings on running add to the image of a single person (typically a man) experiencing/exploring his own body (or “true nature”) while running and providing accounts of the landscape in scenic or tactile terms. In these stories the landscape is climbed or struggled through, but never altered: the interaction is never more than ephemeral (Austin, 2007; Murakami, 2008; McDougall, 2010; Sörlin, 2011; Lorimer, 2012; Whalley, 2012). Consequently, in the bestseller Born to Run by McDougall (2010), the members of the Mexican Tarahumara tribe are singled out as the ultimate runners; not only do they live in a remote and almost inaccessible valley, but we are told repeatedly that their trails are barely visible. Thus, according to these popular stories of the runner, the ideal runner has left the realm of modern society and entered nature – yet leaves no traces and plays no part in the making of nature, but is merely a tourist who will soon make their way back to the car and modern society (Plymire, 2006; see also Ryan, 2002 on the “no impact” ideal in sports).

Hypotheses are investigated through the estimation of four conditional

Hypotheses 1⿿6 are investigated through the estimation of four conditional logistic regression models, one for each quartile of the dependent variable within a seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) system of equations. The dependent variable represents a resident⿿s life satisfaction, or mental health or psychological distress each of which have been disaggregated into quartiles. The different quartiles for each wellbeing measure allow heterogeneity across the distribution to be revealed.
Eq. (1) illustrates the general form of the quartile-specific conditional logistic regression models, for resident r in location k, within the seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) system:Where, denotes variables j=1⿦m. These variables include for example, age, gender, ethnicity and importantly the measure of physical activity and the measure of greenspace. represents the two-way interaction term of greenspace physical activity. represents the Local Government Area (LGA)-specific fixed effects. Finally, is the error term.
It is worth noting that the terms greenspace and physical activity that are not interacted in each quartile-specific conditional logistic regression provide evidence on hypotheses 1, 3 and 5. In contrast, the two-way interaction terms (greenspace physical activity) in each quartile-specific conditional logistic regression yield evidence on hypotheses 2, 4 and 6.

Results
The key results, for Eq. (1) are reported in Tables 2⿿4. With regards to order FK-228 1, Table 2 columns 1⿿4 suggest that, independently and distinct from any synergistic effect, both greenspace (odds of reporting a life satisfaction score in the first quartile=0.9452, [0.9023,0.9902], p-value<0.05) and physical activity (odds of reporting a life satisfaction score in the first quartile=0.8128, [0.7114,0.9288], p-value<0.01), reduce the likelihood of reporting a life satisfaction score in the first quartile. Table 3 columns 1⿿4 suggest, pertinent to hypothesis 3, that greenspace is only statistically significant for the third quartile (odds of reporting a mental health score in the third quartile=1.0997, [1.0213,1.1841], p-value<0.05), net of any synergistic effects. Furthermore, physical activity is found to have an independently greater estimated effect on reducing the likelihood of reporting a mental health score in the first quartile (odds of reporting a mental health score in the first quartile=0.7828, [0.6995,0.8760], p-value<0.01) compared to the other quartiles, distinct from any hypothesised synergistic psychological benefits. Table 3 columns 1⿿4 yield no evidence of synergistic psychological benefits across the mental health distribution (hypothesis 4). For the case of hypothesis 5 which relates to psychological distressTable 4 columns 1⿿4 reveal that only physical activity, net of hypothesised synergistic psychological benefits is generally associated with lower levels of psychological distress. Greenspace is not found to be statistically significantly linked to psychological distress holding constant any synergistic effect. However, physical activity (odds of reporting a psychological distress score in the first quartile=1.3025, [1.1020,1.5396], p<0.01) is linked to a higher estimated likelihood of reporting lower levels of psychological distress. Corroborating this general finding, although marginally less compelling, the results for the third (odds of reporting a psychological distress score in the third quartile=0.8515, [0.7461,0.9718], p<0.05) and fourth (odds of reporting a psychological distress score in the fourth quartile=0.8622, [0.7536,0.9863], p<0.05) quartiles point to a lower chance of reporting higher degrees of psychological distress for those who engage in physical activity. Similar to the case of life satisfaction (hypothesis 2) and mental health (hypothesis 4) Table 4 columns 1⿿4 also fall short of providing evidence of synergistic psychological benefits (hypothesis 6).

Urban trees present a feasible form

Urban trees present a feasible form of urban green infrastructures for heat mitigation. The shading effect of urban trees reduces the net energy brompheniramine maleate thus modifying the urban energy balance (Roy et al., 2012) and cooling the urban canopy and boundary layers by reducing the sensible heat (Armson et al., 2012; Rahman et al., 2015). The participatory role of urban trees with its shading effects and evapotranspiration in urban land-atmosphere interactions also assists in improving the building energy efficiency by declining cooling demand (Akbari et al., 2001). The houses with shade trees have shown decrease in peak cooling demand of over 30% in previous studies (Akbari et al., 1997). Similarly, shade trees also contribute to human thermal comfort by reducing surface and air temperatures and reducing direct and diffusive shortwave (solar) radiation from reaching canyon facets (Hedquist and Brazel, 2014; de Abreu-Harbicha et al., 2015).
The effects of shading and evapotranspiration of trees on the built environment have triggered various research efforts to incorporate trees in urban modeling systems. Lee and Park (2008) included trees in the vegetated urban canopy model (VUCM) by including the hydrological processes of trees via evapotranspiration (ET), but without taking into account the effect of radiative shading. Krayenhoff et al. (2014) included the radiative effects of tall trees in multi-layer urban canopy model (UCM) based on Monte Carlo ray-tracing method. Wang (2014) integrated urban trees into a single-layer UCM, enabling heat exchange between trees and urban facets via modifications of the radiative view factors. This modified view factors was later adopted by (Ryu et al., 2016), together with other biophysical processes of urban trees such as ET. Song and Wang (2015a, 2015b) integrated urban trees into a single column atmospheric model, and used it to investigate the impact of urban trees on urban boundary-layer dynamics. These studies using offline (stand-alone) UCMs have shown that the inclusion of trees has significant impacts on predicting the overall cooling effect by urban green infrastructures for the local environment at the suburban (neighborhood to city) scales (Song and Wang, 2016; Wang et al., 2016). However, these studies are offline in the sense that the urban land surface processes with trees included are not fully interactive with the driving environmental forcings, resulting in potential errors in quantifying the actual effect of trees in an integrated land-atmosphere system.
For online platforms with fully coupled land-atmospheric dynamic modules, such as the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, the incorporation of the shading effect of urban trees not only allows an enhanced accuracy in predicting regional climate, but also has significant implications to sustainable urban planning in, e.g. building energy efficiency (Akbari et al., 1997, 2001). Among the developed urban modeling systems, the single-layer UCM (Kusaka et al., 2001; Masson, 2000) integrated into the WRF platform (Chen et al., 2011) has undergone continuous improvements and been widely used (Wang et al., 2013; Yang et al., 2015a) for accounting the land-atmosphere feedback and predicting urban hydroclimate. Nevertheless, modeling of water and energy budgets related to urban trees remains largely inadequate and presents as an open challenge hitherto in WRF-UCMs (Krayenhoff et al., 2014, 2015; Ryu et al., 2016). Numerical difficulty still persists in resolving the participatory role of trees in the exchange of radiative energy in built terrains (viz. shading by blockage of direct solar radiation, and trapping of terrestrial radiation) (Krayenhoff et al., 2014; Wang, 2014).
The purpose of the present study is to incorporate urban trees to be participatory into the fully coupled WRF-UCM system, by including the shading/trapping effect (Fig. 1) in radiative heat exchange in street canyons. This study applied the Monte Carlo method for radiative exchange in 2D street canyons, integrating urban trees and their shading effect derived by a previous study (Wang, 2014). With the integrated model, fully coupled regional scale simulations were carried out for the Phoenix Metropolitan area.

Urban trees present a feasible form

Urban trees present a feasible form of urban green infrastructures for heat mitigation. The shading effect of urban trees reduces the net energy brompheniramine maleate thus modifying the urban energy balance (Roy et al., 2012) and cooling the urban canopy and boundary layers by reducing the sensible heat (Armson et al., 2012; Rahman et al., 2015). The participatory role of urban trees with its shading effects and evapotranspiration in urban land-atmosphere interactions also assists in improving the building energy efficiency by declining cooling demand (Akbari et al., 2001). The houses with shade trees have shown decrease in peak cooling demand of over 30% in previous studies (Akbari et al., 1997). Similarly, shade trees also contribute to human thermal comfort by reducing surface and air temperatures and reducing direct and diffusive shortwave (solar) radiation from reaching canyon facets (Hedquist and Brazel, 2014; de Abreu-Harbicha et al., 2015).
The effects of shading and evapotranspiration of trees on the built environment have triggered various research efforts to incorporate trees in urban modeling systems. Lee and Park (2008) included trees in the vegetated urban canopy model (VUCM) by including the hydrological processes of trees via evapotranspiration (ET), but without taking into account the effect of radiative shading. Krayenhoff et al. (2014) included the radiative effects of tall trees in multi-layer urban canopy model (UCM) based on Monte Carlo ray-tracing method. Wang (2014) integrated urban trees into a single-layer UCM, enabling heat exchange between trees and urban facets via modifications of the radiative view factors. This modified view factors was later adopted by (Ryu et al., 2016), together with other biophysical processes of urban trees such as ET. Song and Wang (2015a, 2015b) integrated urban trees into a single column atmospheric model, and used it to investigate the impact of urban trees on urban boundary-layer dynamics. These studies using offline (stand-alone) UCMs have shown that the inclusion of trees has significant impacts on predicting the overall cooling effect by urban green infrastructures for the local environment at the suburban (neighborhood to city) scales (Song and Wang, 2016; Wang et al., 2016). However, these studies are offline in the sense that the urban land surface processes with trees included are not fully interactive with the driving environmental forcings, resulting in potential errors in quantifying the actual effect of trees in an integrated land-atmosphere system.
For online platforms with fully coupled land-atmospheric dynamic modules, such as the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, the incorporation of the shading effect of urban trees not only allows an enhanced accuracy in predicting regional climate, but also has significant implications to sustainable urban planning in, e.g. building energy efficiency (Akbari et al., 1997, 2001). Among the developed urban modeling systems, the single-layer UCM (Kusaka et al., 2001; Masson, 2000) integrated into the WRF platform (Chen et al., 2011) has undergone continuous improvements and been widely used (Wang et al., 2013; Yang et al., 2015a) for accounting the land-atmosphere feedback and predicting urban hydroclimate. Nevertheless, modeling of water and energy budgets related to urban trees remains largely inadequate and presents as an open challenge hitherto in WRF-UCMs (Krayenhoff et al., 2014, 2015; Ryu et al., 2016). Numerical difficulty still persists in resolving the participatory role of trees in the exchange of radiative energy in built terrains (viz. shading by blockage of direct solar radiation, and trapping of terrestrial radiation) (Krayenhoff et al., 2014; Wang, 2014).
The purpose of the present study is to incorporate urban trees to be participatory into the fully coupled WRF-UCM system, by including the shading/trapping effect (Fig. 1) in radiative heat exchange in street canyons. This study applied the Monte Carlo method for radiative exchange in 2D street canyons, integrating urban trees and their shading effect derived by a previous study (Wang, 2014). With the integrated model, fully coupled regional scale simulations were carried out for the Phoenix Metropolitan area.