In the present scenario the search for new bioactive compounds has extended from medical field to agricultural field for crop protection and enhancing yields. The present study publicises that the saline stressed habitats are potential reservoirs for bioactive actinobacteria. In vitro antagonistic assay with our antagonist strain uncovers its potential to be utilised as biocontrol mechanism against phytopathogenic fungi M. phaseolina. The halotolerant Streptomyces strain K20 even possesses plant growth promotion potential by producing IAA, siderophore and ammonia and solubilises phosphate. Thus, directly as well as indirectly it can promote plant growth. So, it may be concluded that the strain S. aureofaciens K20 could be utilised for biocontrol management (M. phaseolina) programme in saline stressed soils.
The first author expresses her sincere gratitude to University Grants Commission (UGC), New Delhi, India for providing financial support in the form of fellowship.
The elderly purchase Bafetinib is increasing globally, resulting in higher healthcare costs and demand for services (Klarin et al., 2005; Fick et al., 2001). The estimation of current statistics suggests that 2.9% of the affected elderly persons were more than 65years of age in the Saudi population (WHO, 2011). One of the challenges in the provision of healthcare to elderly persons is inappropriate prescriptions, drug-related is inappropriate prescriptions and complications. The earlier studies from the western population indicates 12% and 23% of more than 65years of age consumed at least 10 medications at any given time, and five prescription drugs monthly (Kaufman et al., 2002). One of the study from European population showed that the older people in community-dwelling received ∼2.8–5.0 drugs (Brekke et al., 2008). An earlier study in the 90s concluded the person who receives two, four and seven drugs experienced with 13%, 38% and 82% risk (Goldberg et al., 1996). Duplicate use of drugs within the same class is common and often unrecognised. The side effects of drugs are leading to polypharmacy, coupled with continued prescription of cascades (example; prescribing levodopa for parkinsonian symptoms resulting from neuroleptic drugs side effects) (Col et al., 1990). Older individuals are at a higher risk of developing drug-related adverse events because of age-related changes and reduced organ reserve capacity (Byles et al., 2003). Furthermore, age-related changes in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and coexisting diverse underlying medical morbidities contribute towards serious adverse drug interaction and toxicity (Handler et al., 2006). Polypharmacy, non-prescription drugs and inadequate treatment adherence carry a substantially high risk for morbidity and mortality. Hospital admission, functional impairment, falls, cognitive decline, drug toxicity and poor quality of life are common, due to inappropriate prescription of medication (Williams, 2002; Chin et al., 1999; Buajordet et al., 2001). In total, 5% of total hospitalisations are reportedly drug-related; 17% thereof are of older adults (Lazarou et al., 1998).
Drug-related problems are common in primary care (Doshi et al., 2005) and up to 35% of older patients attending outpatient clinics develop preventable adverse drug interactions (Mallet et al., 2007). Prescription of inappropriate medications is an important preventable drug-related problem (Beijer and de Blaey, 2002). A potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) refers to prescription of drugs carrying risks outweighing the expected clinical benefits, especially when there is evidence for an equally or more effective and safer alternative medication (Spinewine et al., 2007; Chang and Chan, 2010). There are few international evidence-based studies on a comprehensive clinical approach comprising appropriate drug prescription for elderly people. Beers’ criteria, published in 1991 and updated in 2003 and 2012 (Beers et al., 1991; Fick and Semla, 2012; Fick et al., 2003), are the most widely used tool for appropriate prescription and monitoring of elderly persons in ambulatory settings and long-term facilities. Recently, Beers’ criteria updated PIMs to include up to 53 drugs in three classes, which may carry negative outcomes and limited effectiveness for elderly people. The criteria had been well described and emphasised, to improve the care of older adults and reduce exposure to PIMs (Fick and Semla, 2012). PIMs fall under three major therapeutic classes, organs and systems, namely: PIMs and classes to avoid in older adults, PIMs and classes to avoid in older adults with certain diseases and syndromes and medications to be used with caution in older adults.