Presumably LBPs have health promoting activities such
Presumably, LBPs have health-promoting activities, such as antioxidant, immune regulation, anti-stress, anticancer, neuroprotective and antidiabetic activities [, , , , ]; LBPs can improve the whole-body health status of mice and stimulate the expressions of IL-2, IL-12 and TNF-α, which are transferred to the epididymides and inhibited bacterial infection, and protected epididymides and sperm.
Introduction Postpartum psychosis (PP) is a severe form of psychiatric disorder occurring within the first few weeks following childbirth. The reported prevalence of PP is 1–2/1000 deliveries and the condition is characterized by an acute onset of symptoms along with significant risks to the mother and infant (Sit et al., 2002). PP is possibly a presentation of underlying bipolar illness with some patients experiencing symptoms only during the postpartum period (Chaudron and Pies, 2003). Several psychosocial and biological factors have been identified as possible risk factors for PP. Biological factors such as sudden drop in oestrogen levels in the immediate postpartum period, sleep and circadian rhythm disruption, dopamine receptor hypersensitivity along with contributing genetic factors have been suggested as possible factors that play a role in the manifestation of PP (Bergink et al., 2013; Kumar et al., 2007; Lewis et al., 2016; Sharma et al., 2004). Patients with PP have been reported to have higher rates of autoimmune thyroiditis and pre-eclampsia, both of which have an immunological basis (Bergink et al., 2011, 2015). Various autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis (RA), multiple sclerosis (MS) and autoimmune thyroiditis frequently remit during pregnancy and exacerbate or have their onset in the postpartum period (Häupl et al., 2008; Hughes et al., 2014; Weetman, 2010). Such fluctuations in the clinical course of various autoimmune disorders during pregnancy and postpartum period suggest the underlying changes in the Schisandrol B during these periods. Thus far, the possible mechanism suggested to this varying manifestation of the autoimmune diseases, is differential neuroendocrine regulation of T-helper cells type 1 (Th1) and T-helper cells type 2 (Th2) cytokine production (Elenkov et al., 1997). It is reported that during normal pregnancy, there is reduced Th1 function leading to an immunosuppressive state (Marzi et al., 1996; Russell et al., 1997). The rebound activation of the immune system following the delivery plays a vital role in the manifestation of various autoimmune diseases (Elenkov et al., 2001; Weetman, 2010). Also, evidence links the pathogenesis of bipolar illness to an underlying immune dysfunction, characterized by an elevation in pro-inflammatory cytokines (Luo et al., 2016; Munkholm et al., 2013, 2015). In view of the above findings and also because of the link between bipolar disorder and postpartum psychosis, it is likely that immune factors may play a role in the manifestation of PP. A study that examined the association between immune system activation and first-onset PP found that chemokine MCP-1/CCL2 (chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2) was significantly upregulated and glucocorticoid receptors-alpha (GR-α) with an anti-inflammatory role were downregulated in women with PP as compared to healthy postpartum and non-postpartum women (Bergink et al., 2013). The research in the area of immune system dysregulation in PP is sparse and the current limited understanding has come mainly from studies involving populations in western countries. The variations in the immune system with geographical factors, socioeconomic factors, and dietary habits are being increasingly recognised (Graham-Rowe, 2011; Logan et al., 2016). Hence, there is a need for further research in the area of immune dysfunction in PP from diverse sociocultural backgrounds. In this study from the southern part of India, we have explored the cytokine and chemokine changes associated with first onset PP.