Future analysis could consider using fixed effects also with
Future analysis could consider using fixed effects also with the level set field, , in order to investigate which covariates explain the classification, a feature of the proposed model that we have not yet investigated. Further, multi-type point patterns may also be analyzed with the proposed model class for instance for the joint analysis of several species of plants. This could be performed by introducing multivariate Gaussian random fields for the classes, i.e. for . Another possibility is letting several species share the same level set field, , or classifications field, , but use independent class fields, . In this way, information about could be pooled from several point patterns jointly.
A problem with the spectral approach used in this work is that the spatial discretization has to be on a lattice. In applications where such restrictions are problematic, the sampling of the Gaussian fields could be performed with a different method. Generally this requires
operations. A possible approach to remedy this would be to acquire a Gaussian Markov random field approximation of the problem. This idea has been studied by Lindgren et al. (2011), Rue and Held (2005) and Simpson et al. (2016) revealing computationally attractive properties on arbitrary domains. An Bikinin receptor of the method by Simpson et al. (2016) to the LSCP model would reduce the computational cost to while still allowing for arbitrary spatial discretizations.
Another issue that needs further investigation relates to the choice of prior for the parameters of the Gaussian random field as these can substantially influence the smoothness and, as a result, the significance of the spatial covariates. A spatial field that is too “wiggly” can easily lead to overfitting, rendering any covariates insignificant, while a field that is too smooth defies its very purpose. Some work has been done on investigating this in the context of pc priors for log Gaussian Cox processes (Sørbye et al., 2017), but there is room for further investigation.
Acknowledgments The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation (KAW 20012.0067) and the Swedish Research Council (2016-04187). We would like to thank the people at the Center of tropical forest research, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute for the extensive forest census plot and for making the data publicly available. The BCI forest dynamics research project was founded by S.P. Hubbell and R.B. Foster and is now managed by R. Condit, S. Lao, and R. Perez under the Center for Tropical Forest Science and the Smithsonian Tropical Research in Panama. Numerous organizations have provided funding, principally the U.S. National Science Foundation, and hundreds of field workers have contributed. Also thanks to the Barro Colorado soil survey (Jim Dalling, Robert John, Kyle Harms, Robert Stallard and Joe Yavitt and field assistants Paolo Segre and Juan Di Trani) for making the soil sample data publicly available, answering questions, and providing the original soil sample locations on request. The Barro Colorado soil survey was funded by NSF DEB021104, 021115, 0212284, 0212818 and OISE 0314581 as well as the STRI Soils Initiative and CTFS.
Introduction Inflammation is a part of the body defensive mechanism to different triggers, such as pathogens, chemicals or physical tissue injury . An acute inflammatory response in the body is not that dangerous, it may produce edema and cellular influx due to changes in vascular permeability and local hemodynamics, however, the chronic inflammatory response produces diseases like asthma, rheumatoid arthritis and cancer [2,3]. Long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like indomethacin, ibuprofen and naproxen has been associated with gastrointestinal ulceration, bleeding and nephrotoxicity . These undesirable side effects are due to inhibition of COX-l enzyme. This isoform is involved in the physiological production of prostaglandins (PGs) that are responsible for maintaining gastric and renal integrity. On the other hand, inhibition of COX-2 isozyme accounts for the therapeutic benefits of NSAIDs, since COX-2 induces inflammatory conditions and is involved in the production of prostaglandins mediating pain .