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  • br Potential endogenous agonists of

    2022-06-20


    Potential endogenous agonists of GPR35 The first endogenously produced chemical that was shown to be able to activate GPR35 was the tryptophan metabolite kynurenic Pirfenidone [8]. When human GPR35 was expressed along with a mixture of promiscuous and chimeric G proteins 9, 10 (Box 1) in CHO cells, addition of kynurenic acid elevated [Ca2+]i in a concentration-dependent fashion [8]. Importantly, other intermediates of tryptophan metabolism, including the non-carboxylate kynurenine, were inactive [8]. This demonstrated the probable importance of the acidic moiety of kynurenic acid for binding and/or function. Furthermore, although each of the human, rat and mouse orthologues of GPR35 was activated by kynurenic acid, it was already noted that kynurenic acid was less potent at human GPR35 than at the rodent orthologues [8]. These observations were difficult to interpret fully, however, because the studies were performed after transient Pirfenidone transfection of CHO cells and without any indication of the relative expression levels of the orthologues of GPR35 [8]. Further studies indicated that GPR35 was probably able to couple to pertussis toxin-sensitive Gi-family G proteins, because chimeric G protein α subunits containing only the C-terminal five or nine amino acids from such G proteins were able to transduce signals. Furthermore, kynurenic acid-stimulated binding of [35S]GTPγS to membranes of CHO cells expressing GPR35 was prevented by pretreatment with pertussis toxin [8], which blocks signal transduction via this class of G proteins. A series of further studies has confirmed the agonist action of kynurenic acid at GPR35 5, 11, 12, 13. Moreover, the initial report of variation in potency of kynurenic acid at human versus rodent orthologues of GPR35 has been confirmed and extended. For example, Oka et al.[14] struggled to generate a response to kynurenic acid at human GPR35 in Ca2+ assays, whereas Jenkins et al.[13] reported the EC50 of kynurenic acid as >1×10−3 M at human GPR35 but 7×10−5 M at the rat orthologue using a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET)-based GPR35-β-arrestin 2 interaction assay (Box 2) (Figure 2). Indeed, the very low potency of kynurenic acid at human GPR35 prompted Jenkins and colleagues [13] to question the potential relevance of this ligand as a functional endogenous agonist, at least in humans. Given the higher potency of kynurenic acid at rodent orthologues of GPR35 and reported micromolar concentration of kynurenic acid in rat small intestine [15], effects of this ligand via GPR35 in rodents should be anticipated. A second group of endogenously produced ligands that have been reported to activate GPR35 are lysophosphatidic acids [14], particularly 2-acyl lysophosphatidic acids [14]. Responses to such ligands were difficult to assess in [Ca2+]i elevation assays because vector transfected cells also produced a robust stimulation [14]. This probably reflects endogenous expression of one or more members of the lysophospholipid receptor group of GPCRs 16, 17. However, 2-oleoyl lysophosphatidic acid caused internalization of an epitope-tagged form of human GPR35, whereas kynurenic acid had little effect [14]. Furthermore, in cells expressing human GPR35, 2-oleoyl lysophosphatidic acid promoted GTP loading on to the small GTP binding protein Rho A, and this was maintained over a substantially longer time period than in vector-transfected cells [14]. This is particularly interesting given recent information on the G protein-coupling profile of GPR35 (see below). Although, on phylogenetic trees of GPCR sequences expressed in humans and rodents, GPR35 does not reside in the same region as the lysophospholipid receptors, it is most closely related to GPR23. This receptor has been reported to respond to lysophosphatidic acid and has previously been referred to as both the P2Y9 receptor and the lysophosphatidic acid LPA-4 receptor [18]. Furthermore, another relatively closely related receptor is GPR55. GPR55 was originally discussed in terms of being a potential atypical cannabinoid receptor [19], but it is certainly able to respond to lysophosphatidylinositol [20]. Lysophosphatidic acids or other endogenously produced lipids might represent true endogenous ligands for GPR35 and for other related receptors such as GPR87 and GPR92 [21].