br Conclusion In the present scenario the search for

In the present scenario the search for new bioactive compounds has extended from medical field to agricultural field for crop protection and enhancing yields. The present study publicises that the saline stressed habitats are potential reservoirs for bioactive actinobacteria. In vitro antagonistic assay with our antagonist strain uncovers its potential to be utilised as biocontrol mechanism against phytopathogenic fungi M. phaseolina. The halotolerant Streptomyces strain K20 even possesses plant growth promotion potential by producing IAA, siderophore and ammonia and solubilises phosphate. Thus, directly as well as indirectly it can promote plant growth. So, it may be concluded that the strain S. aureofaciens K20 could be utilised for biocontrol management (M. phaseolina) programme in saline stressed soils.

The first author expresses her sincere gratitude to University Grants Commission (UGC), New Delhi, India for providing financial support in the form of fellowship.

The elderly purchase Bafetinib is increasing globally, resulting in higher healthcare costs and demand for services (Klarin et al., 2005; Fick et al., 2001). The estimation of current statistics suggests that 2.9% of the affected elderly persons were more than 65years of age in the Saudi population (WHO, 2011). One of the challenges in the provision of healthcare to elderly persons is inappropriate prescriptions, drug-related is inappropriate prescriptions and complications. The earlier studies from the western population indicates 12% and 23% of more than 65years of age consumed at least 10 medications at any given time, and five prescription drugs monthly (Kaufman et al., 2002). One of the study from European population showed that the older people in community-dwelling received ∼2.8–5.0 drugs (Brekke et al., 2008). An earlier study in the 90s concluded the person who receives two, four and seven drugs experienced with 13%, 38% and 82% risk (Goldberg et al., 1996). Duplicate use of drugs within the same class is common and often unrecognised. The side effects of drugs are leading to polypharmacy, coupled with continued prescription of cascades (example; prescribing levodopa for parkinsonian symptoms resulting from neuroleptic drugs side effects) (Col et al., 1990). Older individuals are at a higher risk of developing drug-related adverse events because of age-related changes and reduced organ reserve capacity (Byles et al., 2003). Furthermore, age-related changes in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and coexisting diverse underlying medical morbidities contribute towards serious adverse drug interaction and toxicity (Handler et al., 2006). Polypharmacy, non-prescription drugs and inadequate treatment adherence purchase Bafetinib carry a substantially high risk for morbidity and mortality. Hospital admission, functional impairment, falls, cognitive decline, drug toxicity and poor quality of life are common, due to inappropriate prescription of medication (Williams, 2002; Chin et al., 1999; Buajordet et al., 2001). In total, 5% of total hospitalisations are reportedly drug-related; 17% thereof are of older adults (Lazarou et al., 1998).
Drug-related problems are common in primary care (Doshi et al., 2005) and up to 35% of older patients attending outpatient clinics develop preventable adverse drug interactions (Mallet et al., 2007). Prescription of inappropriate medications is an important preventable drug-related problem (Beijer and de Blaey, 2002). A potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) refers to prescription of drugs carrying risks outweighing the expected clinical benefits, especially when there is evidence for an equally or more effective and safer alternative medication (Spinewine et al., 2007; Chang and Chan, 2010). There are few international evidence-based studies on a comprehensive clinical approach comprising appropriate drug prescription for elderly people. Beers’ criteria, published in 1991 and updated in 2003 and 2012 (Beers et al., 1991; Fick and Semla, 2012; Fick et al., 2003), are the most widely used tool for appropriate prescription and monitoring of elderly persons in ambulatory settings and long-term facilities. Recently, Beers’ criteria updated PIMs to include up to 53 drugs in three classes, which may carry negative outcomes and limited effectiveness for elderly people. The criteria had been well described and emphasised, to improve the care of older adults and reduce exposure to PIMs (Fick and Semla, 2012). PIMs fall under three major therapeutic classes, organs and systems, namely: PIMs and classes to avoid in older adults, PIMs and classes to avoid in older adults with certain diseases and syndromes and medications to be used with caution in older adults.

br Introduction Placement of dental implants in

Placement of dental implants in the anterior mandible is a routine procedure and considered to be safe. The sublingual hematoma complication that can occur during placement of mandibular endosseous dental implants is potentially life-threatening (Kalpidis and Setayesh, 2004). The growing of knowledge of the causes of that complication is an important aspect of treatment planning. General practitioners and specialists do not pay attention to discuss this complication with patients before surgery. Upper airway obstruction, severe bleeding and formation of a hematoma in the floor of the p2y receptor are the result of vascular trauma (Hofschneider et al., 1999). This vascular complication is attributed to unwanted perforations in the lingual cortical plate (Kalpidis and Setayesh, 2004; Hofschneider et al., 1999).
Formation of hemorrhage can easily spread in the loose tissues of the floor of the mouth, the sublingual area and the space between the lingual muscles. Swelling can occur rapidly and can cause acute airway obstruction, which may require intubation or an emergency tracheostomy (Kalpidis and Setayesh, 2004; Hofschneider et al., 1999; Krenkel et al., 1985). The mandible region from the lingual side, is a very important vascular area. It is supplied by the sublingual branch of the lingual artery which anastomoses with the submental artery, a branch of the facial artery, and the incisive arteries, branches of the inferior alveolar artery (Kalpidis and Setayesh, 2004; Hofschneider et al., 1999; Krenkel et al., 1985). This rich anastomosing blood supply plexus lies very close to the interforaminal lingual cortical plate of the mandible and severe hemorrhage from this region has been reported as a complication of implant placement and other surgical procedures (Kalpidis and Setayesh, 2004; Hofschneider et al., 1999; Dubois et al., 2010). Different anatomical studies reported that many unnamed accessory foramina are present in the mandible, especially on the lingual side (Hofschneider et al., 1999; McDonnel et al., 1994; Loukas et al., 2008). The anatomical description of the median, situated in the midline of the mandible (McDonnel et al., 1994) and lateral lingual foramina, situated between the canine and the premolar region (Kalpidis and Setayesh, 2004) and their linked canals contents is still a matter of debate. Different descriptions about canal content and different terminology to locate the mandible lingual foramen have been reported in the literature (Kalpidis and Setayesh, 2004; Hofschneider et al., 1999; Liang et al., 2006). The purpose of this review is to identify the sublingual hematoma complication that have been reported in conjunction with dental implant treatment in the mandible anterior area and provide data regarding its frequency.

Materials and methods
A literature search using MEDLINE, accessed via the National Library of Medicine PubMed interface (, searching for articles relating to the floor of mouth hemorrhage and life-threatening airway obstruction during immediate dental implant placement in the anterior mandible written in English. The following search string was used: floor of mouth hemorrhage, implant placement in the anterior mandible, complication of dental implant. All the reported papers in the literature were reviewed (1986–2010). We also used the “Related Articles” feature of PubMed to identify further references of interest within the primary search. These references were obtained, and from their bibliographies, pertinent secondary references were also identified and acquired. The process was repeated until no further new articles could be identified. The abstracted literature was reviewed.

Our search has identified 19 studies that were written in the literature. No randomized controlled trials have been identified in the literature to evaluate the incidence of that life threatening complication and to give a clear guideline to avoid that complication, therefore, all of these studies which reported that complication were case series (Table 1).

br Results The descriptive statistics and statistical comparisons

The descriptive statistics and statistical comparisons of angular and linear craniofacial measurements are shown in Table 3. Statistically significant differences were found between Group I and Group II in 10 out of 27 measurements. SNA (p<0.01), ANB (p<0.01), A to N perp (p<0.05), convexity (p<0.05), IMPA (p<0.05) and overbite (p<0.05) measurements were found to have smaller values; but SN-MP (p<0.01) and PP-GoGn (p<0.01) from angular measurements, and S-N (p<0.05) and anterior facial height (p<0.05) from linear measurements were higher in Group I than Group II. Thus, this part of the null leukotriene receptor antagonists was rejected.
Descriptive data for the variables that described head posture and hyoid bone are given for the MB and control group in Table 4. According to the statistical analysis, the OPT-PP measurement was significantly higher and the Vert-PP measurement was lower in MB patients compared to the controls (p<0.05 for both). No significant difference was found for the other head posture measurements. According to the results regarding head posture, the null hypothesis regarding head posture was also rejected.
MB alters the balance between the intra-oral and extra-oral neuromuscular regions. MB changes the muscle forces exerted by the tongue, cheeks, and lips upon the maxillary arch (Cuccia et al., 2008). In MB patients, it is generally expected that a narrow maxillary arch with a high palatal vault will be found, associated with a posterior cross bite, a Class II or III dental malocclusion, and an anterior open bite (Rubin, 1980; Hartsook, 1946; Lessa et al., 2005; Peltomäki, 2007; Linder-Aronson, 1970). The head is generally extended to compensate for the smaller airway space. It is important to notice that head extension increases the sagittal extension of the pharyngeal airway in patients with unobstructed airways and normal breathing function (Hellsing, 1989), but this compensatory mechanism is insufficient to alter the breathing pattern (Huggare and Laine-Alava, 1997).
It has been recognized that mandibular posture as it relates to the craniomaxillary complex is influenced by both proprioceptive intra- and extra-oral forces. Accommodative posture influences the load in several joints of the craniovertebral region, which results in unfavorable dentofacial and craniofacial growth (Darnell, 1983). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the craniofacial morphology, hyoid bone position and head posture in MB and NB patients.
In this study, respiration types were evaluated according to the study of Cuccia et al. (2008), but for an objective evaluation of breathing mode, rhinomanometry was used to determine the degree of MB (Linder-Aronson, 1970). Furthermore, clinical evaluations might be insufficient and the degree of nasorespiratory obstruction may need to be identified and quantified (Vig, 1998).
When the maxillary sagittal skeletal relationship is evaluated, reduced SNA and A to N perp measurements in MB patients were determined. These values indicate a tendency for maxillary deficiency, which was consistent with the findings of Seto et al. (2001). However, Lowe et al. (1996) reported that the maxillary position did not show any major difference in MB patients compared to the control subjects. However, they also found that the maxillary skeletal position is retrognathic in the anteroposterior direction.
In the current study, we found that vertical measurements (PP-GoGn, SN-MP and anterior facial height) were higher in MB patients, which was consistent with the findings of previous studies (Hellsing et al., 1987). Patients in the MB group are likely to present with increased mandibular inclination, characterized by decreased posterior facial height and increased lower anterior facial height. These measurements suggest that respiratory function influences craniofacial development (Lessa et al., 2005). These skeletal measurements indicate a tendency for MB children to present with a dolichocephalic skeletal pattern. Frasson et al. (2006) found no difference between NB and MB patients when facial vertical patterns were assessed. Their study included an assessment of the FMA, SN-GoGn and Y-axis angle values, and they observed no significant alterations between the MB and NB groups in terms of posterior facial height measurements. We found higher values for SN-MP, PP-GoGn and anterior facial height (N-Me) in MB patients but no significant differences in posterior facial height between groups.

Working conditions including shift work working

Working conditions including shift work, working hours and job stress were reviewed. Assessment of job stress, which was conducted in September 2007 by a local university, was evaluated in 445 workers in the departments where SCD cases were found, compared with 892 workers in other departments with no SCD cases. The assessment tool was the Korean Occupational Stress Scale which had been developed for Korean workers. It had eight subscales that included the physical environment, job demand, insufficient job control, interpersonal conflict, job insecurity, organizational system, lack of reward, and occupational climate [31].


Rubber fume has never been reported as a risk factor of CVD in the past, and has never been studied with regard to the size of the particles. Nanoparticles can be divided engineered or manufactured materials and non-intended materials. In the list of representative manufactured nanomaterials selected by the Working Party On Manufactured Nanomaterials of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development [32], rubber fume was not included. Major studies on non-intend materials were welding fume and combustion products of diesel exhaust. Therefore, the possibility of the existence of UFPs in rubber fume was unclear from previous studies. In our study, the mean diameter of rubber fume particles was 63nm in curing and 72nm in calendering (Table 2). There are no guidelines that define UFPs using the mean particle diameters, in case of non-intended, non-engineering materials, which are composed of various heterogeneous materials. However, the diameter of rubber fume in curing in our study was not larger than outdoor particles (50nm). This result suggested that the particulate from rubber fume might be not significantly different from outdoor ambient particles.
Most epidemiological studies on cardiovascular effects were on the nanoscale fraction of environmental dusts rather than occupational exposure, although the mechanism is not fully understood [29]. In most of those studies, the effects are attributed to non-intended material combustion products [26], especially diesel exhaust [33]. In our study, the mean diameter of diesel exhaust was 12nm, which was smaller than rubber fume particles. Considering this Sephin1 Supplier result, rubber fume has different characteristics compare to diesel exhaust, the most frequently studied UFP. Therefore, the strong relationship reported in previous epidemiological studies between particulate matter and CVD, cannot verify a causal relationship between rubber particulate and our SCD cases.
All chemical factors related to CVD such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and styrene that were reviewed in this study were found to be under the limit of detection (LOD) or were at a very low level (Table 2). The workers in this factory were not exposed to other chemicals related to cardiovascular risk such as chlorofluorocarbon, methylene chloride and cobalt. Thus, the possibility of chemical induced SCD was deemed to be low.
Among acute risk factors, high workplace temperatures and alcohol-containing drinks were found in our SCD cases (Table 5). No case had experienced unexpected outrage or surprise with or without work relatedness. No one had experienced physiologic disruption due to continuous long working hours. The high temperatures were found in all cases of manufactoring plants A and B (cases 1-5). Although the temperature measured in 2007 was lower than 30 WBGT °C (Table 2), it could not be evaluated precisely because this survey was done in December. The workers in the production management department who change molds in curing were exposed to 28.1 WBGT °C even when the outdoor atmosphere was 2.7 WBGT °C. The temperatures of curing and calendering were found to be more than 45 WBGT °C in summer [1], and the heat from these processes was spread to other processes. Therefore, except for cases 5 and 6, a high temperature could be a major acute triggering factor for SCD. Rogot and Padgett [21] reported an inverse, approximately linear pattern of CHD mortality with temperature over the greater part of the temperature range with average Fahrenheit temperatures in the 60\’s and 70\’s (15.6-26.6°C), and mortality rose sharply at higher temperatures. A Taiwan study also reported that the risk of coronary artery disease at 32°C was 22% higher than that at 26-29°C, especially in the elderly population [34]. Our SCD cases 1-5 could have been influenced by high temperature in the workplace, especially in the summer. However, only case 4 died in summer, whereas cases 2 and 3 died in the spring. Therefore, the causal relationship between a hot environment and SCD were not clear.

Basic analysis of LBP covariate and LBP CLI

Basic analysis of LBP-covariate and LBP-CLI associations used SAS version 9.3 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA). A variation of Probit regression was used to model the probability of LBP given exposure to lifting as defined by the mean and maximum CLI. Standard methods such as logistic and Probit regression were unable to describe the given data adequately because they Ion Channel Compound Library assumed a linear relationship with the CLI, and the probability of LBP did not increase much after CLI values of 2.5 in these data. Furthermore, approaches that categorized the CLI with cut points may not have been appropriate, as the number and location of the cut points were arbitrary. For flexibility in the model form, the response was not assumed to be strictly linear; instead we assumed that the response was a step function where the probability of adverse response increased after some unknown threshold of exposure. This allowed specification of the critical exposure level using the threshold while making minimal assumptions on the shape of the exposure–response relationship. The model assumed three unknown parameters of the threshold, the background probability of response, and the magnitude of increased probability of response after the threshold, which was estimated using Bayesian methods (see Appendix I). All modeling of the probability of LBP utilized MATLAB version 2013b (The MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA).


The CLI exposure metric assesses front-facing, two-handed lifting of compact loads close to the body, without twisting, stooping, or reaching up or forward. This analysis linked CLI to self-reported LBP in manufacturing workers. Modeling this response from a Bayesian perspective, with Bayesian Hypothesis testing of the significance of a threshold of CLI for the occurrence of LBP, revealed a significant increase in the response at exposures>1.8; up to a 10% increase in the probability of LBP after this threshold; and similar exposure–response relationships depending on the CLI threshold used (i.e., maximum or mean CLI). Basic analysis showed decreased LBP associated with 10–19 h/wk of nonwork physical activities including bending/back twisting, 10–19 weeks of overtime in the past year, 5–10 years of employment, and increased LBP correlated with lifts per shift and maximum lifting frequency. Implications of these findings for causality or other occupational groups are unclear.
We presented one possible approach to characterize the risk of LBP using the threshold exposure level lower bound. This was done using a 100 (1 − α)% lower bound where α=0.05. Based on this analysis, the variable of LBP is likely best assessed using nonparametric Bayesian approaches, but this warrants further evaluation and validation. Here, LBP was defined as at least one occurrence of pain for ≥ 7 days in the past year. In the Backworks prospective cohort study [8], a case was “defined as regional LBP in the lumbosacral area, of any pain intensity, lasting at least 1 day” and peak LI values>3.0, versus < 1.0, were associated with increased LBP (OR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.22–5.31), but not values of 1.0–3.0. Defining and operationalizing LBP as a measure of a MSD adverse health effect is complex and evolving [7]. Strengths of this methods development effort include the use of prospective data and of the NIOSH lifting equation, a previously developed tool, to assess exposure. Limitations include the lengthy time period between exposure and outcome assessment (1 year), resulting in outcome assessment being vulnerable to recall bias. To use LBP as an outcome in RA to drive the development of risk management strategies, the definition of background rates is important to guide the determination of the extra risk of LBP due to occupational exposures. Extra risk means the amount of extra outcome that would occur among individuals, beyond the baseline level of their risk for that outcome, given their exposure to the hazard of interest [24]. In RA, the goal is to characterize extra risk for an outcome, given a specific exposure. How this concept is to be defined and applied in characterizing the risk of LBP, as a consequence of lifting, requires additional data that allows a more nuanced definition of an adverse effect and derivation of background rates.

The unique contribution of items in the safety measure

The unique contribution of items in the safety measure variables that best predicts safety and health perceptions in industrial transport activities was also examined. The overall results of the statistical mean values were average in magnitude indicating the extent safety and health is observed in transport activities. There were moderate correlations between safety and health perceptions and items contained in the safety measure variables. The results show that among the items in the safe vehicle usage variables that reached statistical significant level “records keeping relating to vehicle maintenance history” made the strongest contribution to the prediction of the safety and health perception in transport activities. The results further show that “reverse-in-safety systems” was negatively related to safety and health perceptions. To a large extent the results suggested that the participants recognized the importance for vehicles to remain mechanically sound and the need to be given the highest priority. They appear to be aware of their responsibilities to use protective devices and the right vehicle for a particular purpose by taking into account the working conditions and risks. However, there is a negative attitude toward the need to conform to safety standard related to vehicle reversing. In congruent with previous research HSE [30], this SM-164 could be that the laws that regulate public transport activities are not applied to transport usages in the industries hence, relaxed behaviors toward safety standards.
With regard to the items in a safe driving environment, the result revealed that “provision of signs” and “suitable parking places” made the strongest predictions to safety and health perceptions in transport activities, suggesting that focusing more on providing safety facilities, good infrastructures, and controlling the vehicle movement in the sites of the industries will enhance worker\’s safety. However, the result further shows that the remaining items that made significant contribution to prediction of safety and health perception were weak, indicating less commitment in creating a safe working environment (e.g., area for vehicle operation and pedestrians) necessary to erase high risk images closely associated with the industries transport activities. Meanwhile, the development of safety and the reduction of injury rates greatly depend on commitment to creating healthy and safe working environment (e.g., distancing pedestrian routes away from areas of vehicle activity) [15,32].
In the prediction of health and safety perceptions in driver\’s safety practice, the industries show some level of good behavior toward an inspection program and supervisions to detect unsafe conditions and behaviors that may lead to accidents. However, it appears there are still some vital areas that are not properly managed. The responsibility of management ensuring that both new and experienced employees receive the appropriate training to enhance safe driving procedures and situation awareness to make better decisions to avoid violations, errors, and potential hazards to themselves and others are truncated, thus, increasing the possibilities of accidents occurring and making the environment unsafe. Meanwhile, previous researchers have found that employee perceptions of safety systems are related to management\’s commitment to safety which is associated with injury rates [15]. The results further revealed that the role of drivers to check the safe use of vehicles and the use of protective equipment was negatively associated with safety and health perceptions, indicating the extent industries violate the best safety practice when it comes to driver participation in ensuring safety. However, attempts to eliminate accidents will not be effective unless accompanied with a positive safety culture [4]. As the organization of training and formulation of safety rules for all workers is the key responsibility of management, the above results imply that even though management has some good behavior toward achieving safety, they still lack commitment to provide safe working conditions for workers.

One of the most challenging

One of the most challenging tasks in examining the association of work environment with disease is the lack of past exposure information, such as industry, job, and work characteristics. The methodologies and the results of using the expert system and historical measurement data for estimating retrospective exposures have been reported elsewhere [3,4]. In Korea, no study has yet been conducted to estimate retrospective exposure to benzene, although substantial airborne benzene measurements have been reported regarding specific periods or purposes. The major purpose of this study is to estimate retrospective exposure to benzene through a comprehensive review of literature reported in Korea.

Materials and methods


This paper summarized airborne benzene measurements and classified them according to industry and Dihydromyricetin based on a comprehensive review of literature reported in Korea. We found a reduction in airborne benzene levels over time, regardless of industry type, until the 2000s. No further reduction has been seen since the 2000s, at which point average benzene measurements are still far higher than Korea\’s permissible exposure limit of 1 ppm. The proportions of measurements exceeding 1 ppm were analyzed to be 10% (n = 79) in 2003, 13% (n = 8) in 2005, 38% (n = 29) in 2007, 10% (n = 52) in 2009, 24% (n = 37) in 2010, and 32% (n = 119) in 2011.
Certain factors may be related to the decrement of airborne benzene measurement or exposure levels of benzene over time. First, a substantial reduction of the benzene content (%) in products has contributed significant decrements in airborne benzene exposure over the last several decades. This was confirmed by Fedoruk and Bronstein [10] who reported that benzene concentrations in a simulated breathing zone were approximately proportional to the benzene content of a solvent according to Raoult\’s law. For example, doubling the concentration of benzene in a given liquid will double the concentration of benzene found in the vapor phase at the liquid-vapor interface. Since 1990, when the Industrial Safety and Health Act (ISHA) was thoroughly revised in Korea, rubber adhesive products containing > 5% benzene were not legally allowed to be manufactured, used, and handled in the workplace, with the exception of laboratories [41]. The Clean Air Conservation Act enforced by the Ministry of Environment lowered the maximum limit of benzene content in gasoline fuel from 6% in 1992 to 0.7% in 2009 [42]. The AM(w) of airborne benzene level was found to have markedly dropped in 1990, when legal enforcement of amounts of benzene in industrial products began, but there was little change after that (Fig. 1). Even if the amount of benzene as an impurity in paint, thinners, or solvents has decreased since the 1980s, benzene was commonly found as an impurity (< 1%) until the early 1990s [27]. Paik et al [43] analyzed 108 different thinners in 1998 and reported that eight (7.4%) still contained benzene with contents ranging from 0.1% to 56.7%. Lee et al [44] found seven thinners containing benzene (10%) in 70 different bulk thinners sampled from automobile manufacturing factories in 2002, but the amounts of benzene were < 0.1%. Second, legally mandated reductions in the occupational exposure limit (OEL) have contributed to dramatically decreasing airborne benzene levels. The Korea TWA-OEL of 10 ppm for benzene first stipulated in 1986 was reduced to 1 ppm in 2003, and the STEL-OEL of 5 ppm was additionally established in 2007 [41], whereas those in other developed countries are commonly 0.5 ppm [45]. In 1990, the ISHA legally required employers to assess occupational exposure to hazardous agents, including benzene, twice/year. Our airborne benzene estimates declined sharply from 2.8 ppm (n = 305) of AM(w) in 1990–1994 to 0.1 ppm in 1995–1999 (n = 294) and to 0.7 ppm in 2000–2004. It is not clear whether ecotype trend shows an actual decrement because of the relatively small number of samples from several industries. The ambient benzene levels in most workplaces have decreased to below the 10 ppm OEL, but there are many industries still showing levels > 1 ppm benzene (Supplementary Table).

Sebastiana partera periodo de la

Sebastiana (partera, periodo de la FUNAI, 51años) menciona elementos para concebir TL32711 manufacturer la camarada como una entidad independiente de cualquier órgano del cuerpo: cuando una mujer está en resguardo una vez que ya tuvo a su bebé, no es bueno que ninguna mujer embarazada se siente en su cama pues la camarada de la primera puede pasar al cuerpo de la mujer embarazada, buscando al niño. Con esta concepción se relaciona un dibujo realizado por una india Tupinambá de «la dueña del cuerpo» (a dona do corpo, como es comúnmente conocida la camarada dentro de esta etnia); en el dibujo esta entidad es colocada a un lado del útero, destacando así su existencia independiente (Macêdo, 2007: 66), además de ser considerada como el órgano responsable de la entrada y salida de la sangre en el cuerpo de la mujer (Macêdo, 2007; Macêdo y Belaunde, 2007).
La manifestación de la camarada durante el proceso embarazo-parto-puerperio implica la invocación a los encantados y todo aquello que representa en sus narrativas la existencia de un ancestro común que les da el estatus de indígenas. No es extraño que en esta generación las entrevistadas mencionaran con mayor amplitud los significados de esta entidad. Bárbara, particularmente, es de las mujeres que participó en algunos de los viajes como líder y sabía lo importante de representar con el Toré, la lengua y sus costumbres, una identidad distinta a la nacional que los consolidara ante el órgano indigenista como población indígena. Presumo que la apertura de esta generación al discurso sobre la camarada tiene mucho que ver con este proceso de etnogénesis, donde los conceptos y prácticas distintivas son muy valoradas. En el discurso de esta generación fue constante la referencia de prácticas y conceptos antiguos que los viejos no pasaron para las nuevas generaciones y fue por esta razón que se perdieron; es el caso de las oraciones secretas que las parteras hacían a los encantados en caso de partos complicados, y la lengua Pankararu. Siguiendo la historia de la formación de los Pankararu, solo un sector de la población es descendiente consanguíneo de una aldea indígena, que con el tiempo ha hecho de su pasado una memoria ancestral común para toda la población, pero efectivamente hay quien exalta con mayor fuerza este discurso, según mis datos de campo se trata de la población que menos conserva las señales externas reconocidas etnológicamente como indígenas: su pertenencia indígena la construyen en el discurso y en las prácticas rituales como el Toré (cf. nota 9). Entre otros rituales que se reproducen periódicamente y que tienen que ver con una reafirmación indígena está aquel del Menino do Rancho, ritual que conecta la parte sagrada de la oración a los encantados con la parte profana de socializar el Toré y los rituales distintivos de la etnia.
En el discurso de las parteras de esta generación el nacimiento de un nuevo miembro de la familia, y por ende de la comunidad, implica la reafirmación indígena en varios momentos: cuando la partera visita periódicamente a las mujeres en estado de embarazo y al momento de detectar una posición inadecuada del bebé (pélvica) para el parto, realiza la invocación a los encantados para acomodarlo. Al momento de los dolores de parto la partera tradicional con más experiencia en el barrio reunía espontáneamente a su equipo de ayudantes para realizar el parto junto con la familia de la gestante. Una vez realizado el parto se bebe el vino de Jurubeba y se fuma el tabaco en el cachimbo, se danza el torê y se hace una comida de caldo de pollo y Pirão (comida a base de caldo de gallina y harina).
Al igual que en el periodo anterior el cuerpo reproductivo gira en torno al colectivo, solo que aquí la persona, en este caso la partera, tiene mayores posibilidades de invención y reacomodo de sus conceptos y prácticas a las exigencias del contexto. Como ya fue mencionado, el sistema identitario Pankararu se encuentra amenazado, y en el caso particular del proceso embarazo, parto y puerperio su reproducción biológica y social depende de la invención de nuevos secretos, en el caso de las parteras, nuevas oraciones a los encantados que les permitan superar momentos límite del parto. Fue en esta generación, más que en la anterior, que las parteras hablaron abiertamente de la camarada; en este sentido, más que una diferencia de significados en relación con la generación de los SPI, vemos aquí una diferencia en la forma de presentar las prácticas reproductivas ante los otros. La camarada, como parte de la representación indígena para el acceso a derechos, consiste en esa necesidad de reproducir una tradición no solo en la práctica, sino en el discurso. La camarada, como el Toré, tiene un trasfondo religioso y político en nuestro contexto: por un lado las oraciones secretas a los encantados nos conectan con el sincretismo religioso, que en la práctica se concretiza en eficacia simbólica al momento de atender un parto de alto riesgo. Por otro lado, el valor discursivo de conceptos distintivos del grupo Pankararu como «oraciones secretas», «camarada» o «dona do corpo» reivindican su «indianidad» y con ello su derecho al acceso a recursos, entre ellos los servicios de salud.

In order to understand some physical phenomena such as

In order to understand some physical phenomena, such as transpiration cooling and gaseous diffusion, as well as the physiological flow of blood in presence of an external magnetic field studies of oscillatory MHD flow of viscoelastic fluids in a channel have occupied a central place in fluid dynamics. Many fluids, for example, polymeric solution, polymer melts, paints and oils as well as most physiological fluids, e.g. blood exhibit prominent non-Newtonian behavior. Since non-Newtonian fluids are of different types, various researchers have developed different models to study the behavior of various types of non-Newtonian fluids. Rivlin Ericksen model [16] of second-order fluids is one of several such fluid models that has drawn interest of fluid mechanics researchers.
Fluctuating flow of a viscoelastic fluid in a porous channel was studied by Bhatnagar [17] by using a perturbation scheme. Oscillatory flow of a viscous fluid in a channel was studied by Makinde and Mhone [18]. Ram [19] investigated the effect of Hall current and wall temperature oscillation in a plate where the fluid is rotating. Bastman [20] considered low Reynolds number flow of blood in tsa hdac of slowly varying cross-section, treating blood as a second-order fluid.
The unsteady flow of blood through vessels was studied by Misra and Sahu [21] and Misra et al. [22] by treating blood as a second-order viscoelastic fluid. Electrically conducting viscoelastic fluid flow and heat transfer in a parallel plate channel with stretching walls under the action of an external magnetic field were investigated by Misra and Shit [23]. Subsequently Misra and Shit [24] conducted another study on the flow of a biomagnetic viscoelastic fluid in presence of a magnetic field generated by a magnetic dipole. In this study the non-Newtonian character of blood was represented by Walter’s liquid B model. Peristaltic motion of blood in the micro-circulatory system was studied by Misra and Maiti [25], by considering the arterioles to be of varying cross-section. Sinha and Misra [26] developed a numerical model to perform a study on mixed convection hydromagnetic flow over an inclined nonlinear porous stretching sheet. Misra and Sinha [27] also investigated the unsteady flow and temperature fields in a diseased capillary, its lumen being porous and wall permeable. Thermal radiation, velocity slip and thermal slip were incorporated in the study.
However, in none of the aforesaid studies mentioned above, the effect of chemical reaction has been incorporated. Xu et al. [28] developed a theoretical model to study the impact of blood flow on rombus growth, by considering the interaction between different constituents of blood and chemical reaction. Coulson and Hernandez [29] carried out an experimental study that depicts the metabolic activities in the presence of chemical reactions. They made an important observation due to injection of certain drugs, hormones and metabolites, and there occurs considerable increase in plasma concentration of reactants. There are sympathomimetics that bear the potential to increase blood glucose and for days together plasma concentration remains at a higher level. It may be noted that in the body, the rate at which chemical oxidation takes place depends on the amount of oxygen consumption, and the related information is highly useful to explore how various requirements are met.
Studies pertaining to the combined effects of heat and mass transfer on chemical reactions are of considerable importance in physiological flows and also in many industrial processes. In processes, such as drying, evaporation at the surface of a water body, energy transfer in a wet cooling tower and the flow in a desert cooler, the transfer of heat and mass occur simultaneously. Heat and mass transfer in magneto-micropolar fluid in a porous plate was studied by Chaudhary and Jain [30]. In their study they considered the radiation term in the heat transfer equation.

Fig shows graphical representation of sum total occurrences of

Fig. 2 shows graphical representation of sum total occurrences of each species of facultative microbial organisms isolated in relation with the mean sperm concentration.
Of the 23 patients with azoopermia, majority 12(52.2%) had no microbial growth, 6 (26.1%) had S. aureus. One (4.34%) patient each had: Klebsiella spp., P. aeruginosa, S. hominis and S. saprophyticus respectively. One (4.34%) patient had yeast-like nrf2 inhibitor (a fungus).
Tables 1 and 2 show the frequency distributions based on the total population studied of specific microbial isolations for oligozoospermic and normozoospermic patients respectively.
Among the normozoospermic patients, 10/54 (18.5%) had no bacterial isolation, 18/54 (33.3%), 9/54 (16.7%) and 7/54 (13%) yielded S. aureus, S. saprophyticus and E. coli respectively among other species.
Applying statistical analysis of attribute of importance (SPSS version 15.0). Fig. 3 demonstrates within cluster variation of oligozoospermia with and without bacterial presence.
Conversely, the case of normozoospermia group is as shown in Fig. 4.
Generally, the overall mean sperm concentration of the infertile population was oligozoospermic (<20 million sperm cells/ml); however, cluster segregations compared with the overall result are presented below in Fig. 5 and this shows the cluster influences associated with the sperm concentrations and their attributes of importance. To further buttress the strength of the influence of different clusters from the population studied, a “TwoStep Cluster Number Frequency” analysis is as shown in Fig. 6. The distribution is asymmetric and the pick between clusters 2 and 3.
Semen analysis comprises of a set of descriptive measurements of spermatozoa and seminal fluids parameters that help to estimate semen quality [20]. Conventional basic semen analysis includes but not limited to sperm concentration, motility and morphology [21]. Many scholars have worked on the uro-genital tract specific and facultative bacterial contamination in male infertility; however, the putative effect of these agents on the quality of semen is still controversial [8]. Presence of bacteria affect male reproductive function directly by impairing motility, causing agglutination, reducing the ability of acrosome reaction and alteration of sperm morphology, and indirectly causing scaring and producing oxidative stress through the release of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) [7,8]. However, reports on the presence of bacteria in semen specimens of infertile men has a similar occurrence to that observed in some fertile males [8,16] and therefore, calls to question the contribution of bacterial organisms on semen quality. Our observations in the present report were not expressly at variance either, however, for the very fact that absolute values of the semen analysis of asymptomatic apparently healthy fertile men had almost always remained superior to those seeking fertility care, there may be factors relating to either testicular abnormalities (excluded), body immunity or active/inactive presence of bacteria contributing to the poor semen quality. This made this present study relevant, qualitatively and quantitatively. In this report the mean sperm concentration of 18.8×106/ml was recorded for the infertile patients and was skewed towards oliozoospermia (52.5% with mean sperm concentration 10 million cells/ml) against the fertile control group with mean sperm concentration of 73.3×106/ml. The WHO normal range (normozoospermia) for fertile men is 20–120×106/ml [17]. Generally, the semen quality (volume, rapid progressive motility, sperm concentration and immotility) were significantly lower than the fertile group, P=0.0005, <0.0001, <0001 and 0.0335 respectively Also, the mean progressive motility ratio were lower than that established by WHO guidelines (a+b)=>50%, where RPM=a and SPM=b or RPM alone >25% [17]. In this study, fertility seekers had (15.6% [a]+18.3% [b])=33.9% and fertile control group had RPM[a]=55.3%. Previous report by Moretti et al. [8] had 46.4% and 51% for RPM and SPM respectively on infertile men with presence of bacteria. Time and place of study may be a factor of variability.