br Case report At the emergency department

Case report
At the emergency department, he was dyspneic and hypotensive (blood pressure 87/40mm Hg). He had paraparesis (grade 2/5 of motor power), and no sensory or nitric oxide synthase inhibitors abnormalities. Examination of cranial nerves and cerebellar system did not reveal any remarkable findings; there were no meningeal signs. The results of laboratory testing were as follows: hemoglobin level 14.4g/dL; white blood cell count 9140 cells/mL; bandemia (band form neutrophils: 25–52%); platelet count 18,000/mL (nadir at 10,000/mL); C-reactive protein 16.39mg/dL; fibrinogen 282.9mg/dL and D-dimer 2947.74ng/mL; blood urea nitrogen 31mg/dL; serum creatinine 2mg/dL; sodium 133 meq/L; potassium 3.4 meq/L; serum calcium 1.69mmol/L; inorganic phosphorus 3.4mg/dL; total bilirubin 2.0mg/dL; direct bilirubin 1.1mg/dL; aspartate aminotransferase 228IU/L; alanine aminotransferase 70IU/L; serum total protein 4.9g/dL; albumin 2.4g/dL; amylase 313IU/L; lipase 212IU/L; creatinine phosphokinase 4148 U/L; creatinine kinase-MB 63IU/L; troponin I 0.21μg/L; and lactate dehydrogenase 434IU/L. Lumbar puncture was not done because of bleeding tendency Urinalysis showed 1+ proteinuria, microscopic hematuria (red blood cells: 35–40/high power field, occult blood: 4+), and mild pyuria (white blood cells: 3–5/high power field, pus cells: 1+). Urine and blood cultures were all sterile.
Considering his occupational exposure combined with nitric oxide synthase inhibitors acute renal and hepatic insufficiency, leptospirosis or Weil’s disease was suspected and penicillin was given. Dopamine with normal saline and platelet transfusion were given to support his blood pressure and prevent spontaneous bleeding. Then, he was admitted to our medical intensive care unit for further care. Intravenous cotrimoxazole was subsequently added to the antibiotic regimen to treat possible Staphylococcus aureus discitis. Respiratory distress was treated with bi-level positive airway pressure and methylprednisolone (40mg every 8hours). Chest X-ray showed cardiomegaly and increased interstitial infiltration of both lungs, consistent with pulmonary vascular congestion. Patchy consolidation in bilateral lungs was suspicious for active infectious process (Fig. 1). Intravenous fluids were reduced due to congested lung on the fourth day in hospital, and methylprednisolone was tapered to 20mg every 12hours on the sixth day in hospital. Acute serum Mycoplasma pneumoniae antibody was negative (<1:40), IgM antibodies for Leptospira detected with indirect hemagglutination test (Focus Diagnostics, Cypress, CA, USA; associated with 92% sensitivity and 95% specificity), and the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) was negative. High-dose methylprednisolone therapy resulted in a dramatic improvement of thrombocytopenia, pneumonia and resulting acute respiratory distress syndrome. His blood pressure became normal and dopamine was tapered and discontinued, and he had no weakness or numbness of both legs by the second day in hospital. He was then transferred to a medical ward with stable vital signs.
After he was transferred to our ward, magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine was normal, and discitis excluded. Intravenous cotrimoxazole was switched to levofloxacin on the seventh day in hospital to cover most respiratory pathogens, including Mycoplasma and other atypical microorganisms. Nerve conduction studies were suggestive of early polyneuropathy of the right peroneal nerve and bilateral sural nerves. Intravenous methyprednisolone and levofloxacin were discontinued on the 10th and 14th days in hospital, respectively. Gallium scan showed no remarkable findings. C-reactive protein declined to 0.30mg/dL and complete blood count became normal with no bandemia after treatment. He was discharged in an ambulatory state with a normal plate count of 205,000/μL. Other laboratory data, including fibrinogen, creatinine, liver function tests, amylase, lipase, cardiac enzymes, and lactate dehydrogenase all returned to normal. A convalescent serum sample obtained 2 weeks from the date of collection of the first sample showed that M. pneumoniae antibody was 1:160, IgM antibody for Leptospira was weakly positive, and the MAT showed seroconversion with significant antibody titers for Leptospira shermani (1:3200) and Leptospira bataviae (1:400). Blood nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) demonstrated Leptospira interrogans.

BLIS produced by E faecium strain DSH inactivated

BLIS produced by E. faecium strain DSH20 inactivated by proteinase K, pepsin, and trypsin enzymes, provided evidence for its proteinaceous nature, showed stability at a wide range of pH values from pH 3.0–9.0 at 30°C, was heat stable even after heating at 100°C for 5 minutes and kept at 75% in autoclave conditions (121°C for 15 minutes). In addition, the BLIS retained its activity after 30 minutes of exposure to UV light, which is the first report for this isolate. During the p2y inhibitor stationary phase of growth, the maximum levels of antimicrobial activity were determined according to findings by others.
The molecular weight of this BLIS was approximately 35kDa. Some other bacteriocins produced by strains from the Enterococcus genus, like pumilicin 4 isolated by Aunpad and Na-Bangchang, as determined by mass spectrometry, was 1994.62 Dalton, have molecular weights ranging between 7 and 20kDa and therefore most of these reported bacteriocins have molecular masses lower than that of our BLIS. This BLIS seems to be is a novel BLIS with a high molecular weight and it needs further identifying using a method such as MALDI-TOF; the potential gene encoding this BLIS needs to be provided.

Introduction
Food handlers employed in hotels and restaurants could be potential sources of various bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections. In the Middle East, parasitic and bacterial infections among food handlers have been studied in Iraq, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey. In Jordan, parasitic and microbial infections among food handlers remain largely very limited. Al-Lahham et al investigated the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria and intestinal p2y inhibitor in food handlers in Irbid. An outbreak of Salmonella food poisoning was reported at the Jordan University Hospital cafeteria caused by one asymptomatic employee at the kitchen.
Human intestinal parasites in Jordan were the subject of several studies that date back to the mid 1950s. Perhaps the first comprehensive study on the intestinal parasites of human was that of Alicata and Dajani. Abdel-Hafez and Abdel-Hafez studied the human intestinal parasites in the Jordan Valley. Nimri found children infected by Entamoeba histolytica along with Blastocystis hominis, and investigated the prevalence of Giardia lamblia among primary school children in northern Jordan and a rural area in the Badia, northeast Jordan.
Youssef et al reported on intestinal parasites and other bacterial and viral pathogens among hospitalized children in northern Jordan. Shehabi et al investigated stool specimens of 400 patients at Jordan University Hospital for the presence of bacterial agents associated with diarrhea. They found that 2.7% of the examined material had Entamoeba histolytica. Shakkoury and Wandy examined stool specimens from several Primary Healthcare Centers in Amman distributed in low, medium, and high socio-economic areas. Al Monmani et al investigated parasitic infections among outpatients at the Princess Aisha Center, Amman.

Materials and methods

Results

Discussion
Food handlers in hotels or restaurants pose a threat of spreading bacterial and parasitic infections to customers. We found seven species of intestinal parasite, with G. intestinalis being the most dominant infection. Indeed, giardiasis is the most commonly reported intestinal protozoal infection worldwide. In Jordan, our findings are similar to those reported by Al-Lahham et al among food handlers in the Irbid area.
Al-Lahhamet al reported that G. intestinalis was the most dominant infection, reaching a prevalence of 3.9%. Restaurants in Irbid area are considered as public and health inspections are not fully enforced. Food handlers employed in luxurious hotels and restaurants require strict annual medical checkup including bacterial and parasite examinations.
Among the Jordanian population, Al Momani et al reported similar pattern of parasites reported in the present study, with G. intestinalis as the most dominant parasitic infection, followed by En. histolytica with infection rates of 61.5% and 19.6%, respectively. This reflects the general parasite fauna affecting the population. By contrast, the infection rates reported by Al Momani et al are much higher compared to the present study. Low infection rates in our study were perhaps due to the requirement for a health certificate and an annual parasitic examination of food handlers in hotels and restaurants. Similar results were seen among the local population in the Badia, northeast Jordan. Chazal and Adi reported that En. histolytica was the most dominant parasitic infection in stool samples collected from Amman, with an infection rate of 27.81%.

ARCA Fish allergy is particularly problematic in coastal

Fish allergy is particularly problematic in coastal countries such as Japan. It is of note that in Asian countries, fish allergy is more common than allergies to nuts, peanuts, or wheat. It is known ARCA that parvalbumin, a sarcoplasmic Ca-binding protein, is a major fish allergen and that anti-parvalbumin IgE is reported to be detected in all patients by some researchers and in 2/3 of patients by other. Type I collagen is another major fish allergen; 50% of Japanese patients with fish allergy show positive for anti-type I collagen IgE. Kobayashi analyze in this article the thermostability of type I collagen in IgE reactivity. Although collagen from Pacific mackerel was degraded by heating (140 °C × 10 min or 100 °C × 320 min), IgE reactivities detected in heated meat did not change during heating, but no reactivities were observed in unheated meat. IgE in pooled serum of the patients with fish allergy reacted with all of the investigated heated meat of ARCA but not of cartilaginous fish, whose collagens are classified as type I. This result suggests that heating is unlikely to reduce IgE reactivity to type I collagen found in fish.
We offer our appreciation to all the authors for their contributions to the present issue of .
Conflict of interest

Historical background
Although the first account of food allergy is generally attributed to Hippocrates, the Chinese emperors Shen Nong (∼2735 BC) and Huang Di (2698-2598 BC) provided advice in “Shi Jin-Jing” (“Interdictions concerning food”) for pregnant women to avoid certain foods, e.g. shrimp, chicken and meats, and for individuals with certain skin lesions (possibly atopic dermatitis lesions) to avoid certain foods. In Hippocrates\’ writings (460–377 BC), he referred to the presence of “hostile humors” (now known as IgE antibodies) in some men that made them “suffer badly” following ingestion of cheese. An often quoted line from a poem of Titus Lucretius Cato (98–55 BC), “What is food to one, to another is rank poison,” strongly suggests an understanding of adverse reactions to foods over 2000 years ago. In the 17th century case reports of food hypersensitivity reactions began to appear in the medical literature; Jean Baptiste van Helmont reported asthmatic attacks following the ingestion of fish in Oriatrike published in 1662. Later Robert Willan described urticaria following the ingestion of almonds, mushrooms, fish, crab, lobsters and mussels, and “urticaria febralis” (fatal anaphylaxis) following ingestion of mussels and lobsters in his Treatise on Dermatology, (a multi-volume publication; 1798–1808).
While various reports of reactions to foods appeared periodically in the medical literature, the classic experiment of Prausnitz in 1921 initiated the scientific investigation of food allergy and established the immunologic basis of allergic reactions. In his experiment, Prausnitz injected serum from a fish-allergic patient, Kustner, and a non-allergic control subject into his own skin, and on the following day he injected fish extract into the same areas. A positive local reaction (Prausnitz–Kustner test) proved sensitivity could be transferred by a factor in serum (now known to be IgE antibodies) from an allergic to a non-allergic individual. In a similar experiment four years later, Freeman passively sensitized his middle nasal turbinate with serum from an egg allergic patient and demonstrated the induction of rhinitis (rhinorrhea and sneezing) shortly after the ingestion of an egg the following day.
Other early studies of food allergy focused on radiologic changes associated with immediate hypersensitivity reactions in the gastrointestinal tract. In one of the first of these reports, hypertonicity of the transverse and pelvic colon and hypotonicity of the cecum and ascending colon were noted in a patient with wheat allergy following the ingestion of wheat. In a later fluoroscopic study, Rowe and colleagues compared the effect of barium contrast material containing food allergens with standard barium contrast material in 12 food-allergic children. They noted prolonged gastric hypotonia and retention of the allergen test meal, prominent pylorospasm, and subsequently increased or decreased peristaltic activity of the intestines.

annexin v Introduction Production of pure hydrogen

Introduction
Production of pure hydrogen for use in downstream polymer electrolyte membrane fuel annexin v (PEMFCs) for mobile applications is gaining increasing interest in recent years [1]. The PEMFC is an adequate system for the power sources of the zero-emission source of power, as its current density is higher compared to other types of fuel cells. The stack structure is rather simple, and there is no leakage or loss of electrolyte during the operation. Other advantages include rapid start-up and response, long endurance, and flexibility of fuel usage from pure hydrogen to methanol and natural gas. In addition, because of the various ranges of power, PEMFC can be used in various fields, such as power sources for stationary generators, space shuttles, road vehicles, and marine auxiliary applications. However, there are many disadvantages to be overcome. It cannot utilize waste heat and cannot be directly connected to the fuel processor, because the operating temperature of the PEMFC is too low. The platinum catalyst is very expensive and the CO tolerance limit for platinum is also too low. For the PEMFC to be commercialized in mobile and stationary power supplies, the above disadvantages have to be overcome first [1,2].

PEM fuel cell total system simulation model
Natural gas, gasoline and diesel type hydrocarbon mixtures have been studied as three different sources for hydrogen production. The average molecular weights are around 16.5kgkmol−1, 95kgkmol−1 and 200kgkmol−1 for the natural gas (CH4), gasoline (C6H12) and diesel (C12H26) fuels, respectively [2,3]. All the simulations in this study are based on these compositions.
The investigated PEM fuel cell system consists of the following sections and their components:
Fuel processing consists of reforming and clean-up sections as shown in Fig. 1. The reforming section contains the reforming reactors: an auto-thermal (ATR) or two steam reforming units (PRE-SREF and SREF), or a partial oxidation (POX) reactor. The clean-up section is made up by high and low temperature shift reactors (HTS and LTS) and the preferential oxidation reactor (PROX).
For all cases, all reactors are simulated to operate under equilibrium conditions. The thermodynamic equilibrium system calculations are based on minimizing the Gibbs free energy. All reactor simulation calculations have been performed keeping “Treactor” almost constant taking heats of reaction into account.

SREF based fuel processing, fuel cell, auxiliary and overall system efficiencies
The following results obtained from the reforming of natural gas, gasoline, and diesel fuel systems. Fig. 2 shows an example of the reforming process using Natural Gas fuel for PEM fuel cell. The components results for partial oxidation case are shown in the following Figs. 3–5 .With the developed system models, which are implemented in the HYSYS 3.2 process simulator, effluents from all reactors are known.
Fig. 3 shows the molar fractions of all components in the effluent of all reactors in the natural gas fuel processor system. In this case, 100% methane is converted to produce 30.7% hydrogen, 5.1% CO2 and 10.2% CO. Also, under these conditions, oxygen is 100% consumed.
The molar fractions of all components in the effluent of all reactors in the gasoline gas fuel processor system are shown in Fig. 4. In this case, 100% methane is converted to produce 37.2% hydrogen, 11.5% CO2 and 25.6% CO.
Fig. 5 shows the molar fractions of all components in the effluent of all reactors in the diesel fuel processor system. In this case, 100% diesel is converted to produce 43.2% hydrogen, 2.2% CO2 and 37.6% CO. Also, under these conditions, oxygen is consumed.
The second case in this study includes steam reforming for Natural gas, gasoline, and diesel fuels using HYSYS simulation. The results for Natural gas system for the selected system points calculated under the prescribed operating conditions applied in the second study are shown in Table 3.

In this article we obtain

In this article, we obtain twenty seven solutions with more free parameters by the new approach of generalized (G′/G)-expansion method. Accordingly, the applied method might be an advance and efficient mathematical tool in solving nonlinear equations that arise in the field of engineering problems. If γ≠0, (12) can also be solved by this method.

Discussions
The advantages and validity of the method over the generalized and improved (G′/G)-expansion method have been discussed in the following.

Conclusion
In this article, the new approach of generalized (G′/G)-expansion method has successfully been implemented to investigate the nonlinear partial differential equation, namely, the strain wave equation in microstructured solids. Abundant exact traveling wave solutions including solitons, kink, periodic and rational solutions are attained. It is worth mentioning that some of newly obtained solutions are identical to already published results. It has been shown that the applied method is effective and more wide-ranging than the generalized and improved (G′/G)-expansion method because it gives many new solutions. Therefore, the method can be applied to study many other nonlinear partial differential equations which frequently arise in engineering, mathematical physics and other scientific real time application fields.

Acknowledgments

Introduction
Nonlinear partial differential equations (NLPDEs) are mathematical models that are used to describe complex phenomena arising in the world around us. The nonlinear equations appear in many applications of science and engineering such as fluid dynamics, oleuropein physics, hydrodynamics, solid state physics, optical fibers, acoustics and other disciplines. In the recent years, many authors mainly had paid attention to study solutions of NLPDEs by using various methods, for example, Adomian decomposition method [1], variational iteration method [2], homotopy perturbation method [3], homotopy analysis method [4], differential transform method [5], F-expansion method [6], Exp-function method [7] and the sine–cosine method [8].
The RDTM was first proposed by the Turkish mathematician Keskin [9–12] in 2009. It has received much attention since it has applied to solve a wide variety of problems by many authors [13–20].
This paper has been organized as follows: Section 2 deals with the analysis of the method. In Section 3, we apply the RDTM to solve two types of NLPDEs. Conclusions are given in Section 4.

Analysis of the method
Consider a function of two variables u(x,t) and suppose that it can be represented as a product of two single-variable functions, i.e., u(x,t)=f(x)g(t). Based on the properties of one-dimensional differential transform, the function u(x,t) can be represented as follows:where (x) is called t-dimensional spectrum function of u(x,t).
The basic definitions of RDTM are introduced as follows [9–12]:Then, combining Eqs. (2) and (3) we writeFrom the above definitions, it can be found that the concept of the RDTM is derived from the power series expansion.
To illustrate the basic concepts of the RDTM, consider the following nonlinear partial differential equation written in an operator formwith initial conditionwhere , R is a linear operator which has partial derivatives, Nu(x,t) is a nonlinear operator and g(x,t) is an inhomogeneous term.
According to the RDTM, we can construct the following iteration formula:where (x),(x),(x) and (x) are the transformations of the functions Lu(x,t),Ru(x,t),Nu(x,t) and g(x,t) respectively.
From initial condition (6), we write
Substituting (8) into (7) and by straightforward iterative calculation, we get the following (x) values. Then, the inverse transformation of the set of values gives the n-terms approximation solution as followsTherefore, the exact solution of the problem is given byThe fundamental mathematical operations performed by RDTM can be readily obtained and are listed in Table 1.

br Examining the World Heritage Centre s guidelines

Examining the World Heritage Centre’s guidelines and approaches against the findings of the study
The findings of the analysis were used to scrutinize the conformity of the World Heritage Centre’s objectives and approaches to the conservation of New Gourna to the objective to improve its chance in meeting the conditions of authenticity and integrity. The objectives of the World Heritage Centre’s report concerning the conservation of New Gourna did not seem to contradict with the objectives and conservation interventions proposed by this study. The objectives of the World Heritage Centre’s report focused mainly on conservation interventions, such as the adaptive re-use of the houses designed by Hassan Fathy. On the other hand, the study’s adopted objective of any conservation works carried out in the property, which was based on Feilden’s [11] objective of conservation, was to preserve and enhance the values of the property. Based on Feilden’s objective, the aim of any conservation works carried out in the property, which was adopted by this study, was to preserve and enhance the values that the property enjoys, particularly those contributing to its Outstanding Universal Value, and to improve its chance in meeting the conditions of authenticity and integrity. The previous aim does not seem to contradict with any of the World Heritage Centre’s objectives. Nevertheless, the World Heritage Centre’s objectives do not seem to focus on values other than the architectural value, the townscape value and the landscape value. The World Heritage Centre’s report does not seem to have discussed whether these interventions and objectives could improve the property’s chance in meeting the conditions of authenticity and integrity or not.
In relation to the challenges associated with the assessment of the authenticity of the village, it PND-1186 manufacturer was found that the proposed interventions (Table 4) were able to avoid attributes such as form and design, and use and function in relation to all the values that the property enjoys except for the religious value. These interventions were proposed so that they target the “materials” attribute of at least six values so as to improve the property’s chance in meeting the conditions of authenticity. However, these interventions were also proposed so that they involve the restoration of the buildings designed by Hassan Fathy to their original condition by the removal of all the internal alterations that were constructed using incongruent materials. Consequently, preservationists were offered a considerable freedom to develop their conservation strategies for New Gourna Village. Therefore, adopting interventions such as adaptive re-use and approaches such as the principles-based approach to conservation, which implies preserving the buildings in the village according to the architect’s principles rather than according to the original designs and materials, was possible. The proposed conservation interventions that had to target the “materials” attribute of at least six values so as to improve the property’s chance in meeting the conditions of authenticity did not seem to limit the freedom offered to preservationists, since osmoregulation would be possible to adopt the principles-based approach while merely removing such internal alterations.
In relation to the challenges associated with the assessment of the integrity of the village, it was found that it is possible to adopt conservation interventions (Table 5) that could avoid attributes such as form and design, and use and function in relation to all the values that the property enjoys except for three values; which are the religious value, the functional value and the economic value. These conservation interventions were proposed so that they target the “materials” attribute of at least five values, which have failed to satisfy the conditions of integrity. These five values are the identity value, the respect value, the architectural value, the scientific value and the educational value. Consequently, it was found that it is possible to adopt interventions such as the adaptive re-use and approaches to conservation such as the principles-based approach as recommended by the World Heritage Centre’s report in relation to most of the values that the property enjoys except for the previous three values; which are the religious value, the functional value and the economic value. Consequently, preservationists were offered a considerable freedom while carrying out any conservation works in the property, which would guarantee the improvement of the property’s chance in meeting the conditions of authenticity and integrity. The inevitability for any intervention to target the “materials” attribute, in relation to the previously listed five values, does not seem to totally contradict with the freedom offered to preservationists and the ability to adopt the principles-based approach. The World Heritage Centre’s study has also recommended the preservation of the remaining houses designed by Hassan Fathy according to their original material, which is earth.

Teneligliptin hydrobromide manufacturer After a critical review of

After a critical review of literature, an endeavor has been made here to study in detail the combustion characteristics of neat and premixed LGO in a single-cylinder air-cooled Teneligliptin hydrobromide manufacturer ignition (CI) engine operated at a maximum load of 3.3kW and standard injection timing of 23° BTDC.

Materials and methods
For the present work, an AVL combustion analyzer attached with AVL INDIMICRA 602-T10602A was used for combustion diagnosis. The signals from AVL/GH 14D/AH01 pressure transducer were converted into voltage signals with a help of a charge amplifier. The specifications of the AVL pressure transducer are given in Table 1. In the present case, an endeavor has been made to investigate PCCI-DI dual fuel concept. In PCCI-DI mode, well atomized LGO was injected very close to the intake port using an auxiliary injector and direct injection of diesel by main injector as usual. And, in PCCI-DI mode, the intake air temperature was maintained at 40°C by an electric heater to enhance the fuel atomization rate. Also, the premixed fuel injected was precisely timed just after the intake valve opening in order to reduce the wall wetting issues. The quantity of premixed fuel to be injected for different premixed ratios (5% and 10%) was calculated based on energy basis using the following expression (1):where is the premixed ratio, the mass of premixed fuel, the mass of direct injected fuel, the lower heating value of premixed fuel, and is the lower heating value of direct injected fuel.
To proceed further, in the present case, 10% premixed ratio has been used as the maximum premix fraction for LGO. This is because the heating value of premixed fuel (LGO) used is less when compared to diesel. Therefore, on energy basis the quantity of premixed fuel to be injected increases exponentially with increasing premixing ratios. Also, to limit the maximum rate of pressure rise during PCCI-DI mode, all experiments were conducted up to 3.3kW load.
The cylinder pressure and other signals picked up by various transducers were collected by the system for 50 consecutive engine cycles. The test engine setup is shown in Fig. 1, the engine specifications are provided in Table 2, and the fuel properties of LGO and neat diesel are distinguished in Table 3. The measured cylinder pressure and other operating parameters were used to calculate rate of pressure rise, heat-release rate, cumulative heat-release rate, ignition delay, combustion duration, and mass fraction burned.

Results and discussion

Conclusions
In this work, the combustion characteristics of neat and premixed LGO in a modified single-cylinder air-cooled CI engine operated at a maximum load of 3.3kW were profoundly studied. Based on the experimental investigations, the following observations are drawn:

Introduction
Basically, three approaches are available yet to enhance the rate of heat transfer, active method, passive method and the compound method [1]. A power source is essential for the active, certain surface modifications or extension, and inserts or fluid additives are used in the passive method, while the compound method is a combination of the above two methods such as surface modification with fluid vibration [2]. The motivation behind this activity is the desire to obtain more effective heat exchangers and other industrial applications [3], with the major objectives being to provide energy, material, and economic savings for the users of heat transfer enhancement technology.
In heat exchangers, corrugation and other surface modifications are commonly used because they are very effective in the heat transfer enhancement, also it is appearing very interesting for practical applications because it is a technique that promotes secondary recirculation flow, by inducing non-axial velocity components [4]. Recently, a swirl or helical flow pattern produced by employing surface modifications or any other passive technique for heat transfer enhancement is very interesting [5]. Also, Spiral corrugation increases heat transfer enhancement due to secondary flow swirls and surface curvatures pass by fluid layers, which also causes pressure losses [6].

Other steps in MICA are

Other steps in MICA are similar to ICA. By this reformation in ICA, optimization problem becomes accurate in the discrete space. Fig. 4 shows the MICA flowchart.

Case studies and simulation results
In this article, MICA is used for OPP problem. By installing PMUs in strategic buses, the system is observable with minimum number of PMUs. The proposed PMU placement algorithm is applied to power systems with IEEE 14, 30, 57 and 118-bus. Fig. 5 shows the single line diagram of 14-bus IEEE system and Fig. 6 shows the single line diagram of 57-bus IEEE system. Two groups of simulations are carried out on the four systems with and without zero injection buses. The proposed method is applied to IEEE 14-bus, and this system needed four PMUs for complete observability at buses 2, 6, 7 and 9. Many configurations can be obtained for four PMUs, but, for redundancy measurement, the best configuration is buses 2, 6, 7 and 9. Figs. 7–10 show converging trend of MICA for OPP problem on IEEE test systems.
These figures show clearly that the best solution is achieved by MICA in low iterations; for example, in IEEE-57 test system in [16], the best solution is achieved in more than 750 iterations but, in MICA, OPP problem for the same system is solved at less than 100 iterations. Table 1 shows the number and locations of the required PMUs for full network observability on IEEE test systems.
MICA is a fast algorithm for OPP problem. Table 2 shows the comparison of CPU times of MICA with other relevant methods used in OPP problem [20–23]. CPU time in the proposed method is very low, but it npy receptor is not main goal. The main objective function is focused on the redundancy measurement and contingencies.
When zero-injection buses are used in the network, the number of PMUs for full network observability might be reduced. For example, if in IEEE 14-bus, one zero-injection bus (bus 7) existed, the number of PMUs is reduced, and for full network observability, 3 PMUs are used in 2, 6 and 9 buses. Table 3 shows the number and locations of the required PMUs for full network observability while using zero-injection buses.
Simulation results of MICA for the OPP problem show that this algorithm is a fast and accurate method and usually converges to the optimum solution. Simulation results for with/without zero-injection buses are given in Table 4.
In Table 5, the number of PMUs for full network observability by using MICA is compared with other optimization methods when zero-injection bus is used [10,16,24,25].
It can be observed, in Table 5, the number of PMUs for full observability in IEEE 118-bus by MICA is less than GA. In contingency (PMU or line outage), the number of PMUs for full network observability is increased. In Table 6, the number of PMUs for full network observability in contingency is compared with those of integer quadratic programming method. In Table 7, comparison of the measurement redundancy value of MICA is shown in relation to other methods in normal operating mode.
As shown in simulation results (Table 6), by applying MICA the number of PMUs for full network observability in contingency is clearly reduced. Using the proposed method moreover CPU time, the number of PMUs is reduced in some IEEE test systems (particularly, on large power networks).

Conclusion

Introduction
The traffic and transportation facility of any country significantly defines its development. The developing countries like India must have a well defined LOS analysis procedure to develop a good road network, because, it is very essential for the planning, design of transportation system and allocation of limited resources to the competing projects. The FFS ranges for urban street classes and speed ranges of LOS categories that are specified in HCM [1] have been followed in India for LOS analysis of urban streets. In fact speed ranges mentioned in HCM [1] are suitable for developed countries having homogenous traffic flow. In developing countries like India traffic on roads is highly heterogeneous, and twenty two types of vehicles having wide variation in physical size travel on roads, as a result of which vehicular travel speed is comparatively less under heterogeneous flow condition.

Belinostat Fig shows the variation in the component of

Fig. 6 shows the variation in the -component of the induced magnetic fields with respect to y for different values of and t at a fixed cross section . From Fig. 6(a), it Belinostat can be clearly observed that the effect of Pm on is to reduce it, and as a consequence the magnetic boundary layer thickness increases. It can also be observed that for high value of profiles increase monotonically and finally attain steady state but in case of low value of Pm, initially the profiles increase exponentially along y and after that monotonically and finally steady-state is achieved. Fig. 6(b) reveals that the normal component of induced magnetic field is more influenced by M. It decreases with increase in M. For high value of M, in beginning the profiles increase exponentially and after that there is gradual increase and finally steady state is achieved while for low values of M the profiles increase monotonically and become steady. In Fig. 6(c), we have shown the effect of semi-vertical angle on y component of induced magnetic field. Fig. 6(c) displays that profiles decrease with increase in . Also, induced magnetic field has increasing tendency with time. From the comparative study of Fig. 6(a) and (b), we noticed that time parameter influences strongly in case of increasing M. From Fig. 6, we can see that the normal component of induced magnetic field is monotonically increasing function of y. Figs. 7 and 8 show the variation in velocity and induced magnetic field profiles respectively at a fixed cross section for different values of considered parameters for . The results are quite similar as velocity profile Fig. 4 and induced magnetic field profile Fig. 5 respectively.
Fig. 9(a) presents graphs for local skin-friction profiles. The effect of Pm is to reduce the local skin-friction profiles. For higher value of Pm profiles start increasing, achieve maximum value and then decrease gradually. But, in case of low Pm, there is a sharp decrease in skin-friction profiles. Also, the peak values shift toward the surface of the cone. In Fig. 9(b) we have shown the influence of magnetic parameter M and it is clear from Fig. 9(b) that M enhances the local skin-friction profiles. Also, the steady state is achieved later with the rise in M. The effect of semi-vertical angle of the cone on local skin-friction has been presented in Fig. 9(c). From Fig. 9(c), circadian rhythms can be seen that the effect of is to reduce the local skin-friction profiles. From Fig. 9, we observed that the local skin-friction increases with time. Fig. 10 depicts for local Nusselt number and we can notice the qualitatively similar results as that for Fig. 9 but the effect of time parameter on it has opposite behavior i.e. the time parameter reduces the maximum value of local Nusselt number. From the comparative study of Figs. 9 and 10, we can say that the time parameter is more influential on the local skin-friction.
Fig. 11 displays the average values of skin-friction for different value of and t. Fig. 11(a) represents graph of as a function of time. Here, we observed that there is retardation in average skin-friction profiles with increase in Pm but advancement with increase in M. Initially, these profiles start with minimum values and go on increasing with time, attain maximum and finally become steady. Fig. 11(b) shows sketches for average skin-friction profiles as a function of . It is revealed from the figure that average skin-friction profiles enhance with increase in magnetic parameter while magnetic Prandtl number has opposite effect. It can also be observed from the figure that the maximum value of is achieved when is and it slightly decreases with increase in . Fig. 12(a) illustrates graph of average Nusselt number as a function of time. From Fig. 12(a), it can be seen that the average Nusselt number profiles get enlarged with rise in M but Pm put adverse effect. Fig. 12(b) depicts average Nusselt number as a function of . It is revealed from Fig. 12(b) that average Nusselt number profiles increase with increase in Belinostat M but the rate of increase reduces when the values of Pm are simultaneously increased. Also, profiles decrease with increase in Pm. Initially these are at maximum magnitude and slowly go down decreasing with increase in .

Belinostat Fig shows the variation in the component of

Fig. 6 shows the variation in the -component of the induced magnetic fields with respect to y for different values of and t at a fixed cross section . From Fig. 6(a), it Belinostat can be clearly observed that the effect of Pm on is to reduce it, and as a consequence the magnetic boundary layer thickness increases. It can also be observed that for high value of profiles increase monotonically and finally attain steady state but in case of low value of Pm, initially the profiles increase exponentially along y and after that monotonically and finally steady-state is achieved. Fig. 6(b) reveals that the normal component of induced magnetic field is more influenced by M. It decreases with increase in M. For high value of M, in beginning the profiles increase exponentially and after that there is gradual increase and finally steady state is achieved while for low values of M the profiles increase monotonically and become steady. In Fig. 6(c), we have shown the effect of semi-vertical angle on y component of induced magnetic field. Fig. 6(c) displays that profiles decrease with increase in . Also, induced magnetic field has increasing tendency with time. From the comparative study of Fig. 6(a) and (b), we noticed that time parameter influences strongly in case of increasing M. From Fig. 6, we can see that the normal component of induced magnetic field is monotonically increasing function of y. Figs. 7 and 8 show the variation in velocity and induced magnetic field profiles respectively at a fixed cross section for different values of considered parameters for . The results are quite similar as velocity profile Fig. 4 and induced magnetic field profile Fig. 5 respectively.
Fig. 9(a) presents graphs for local skin-friction profiles. The effect of Pm is to reduce the local skin-friction profiles. For higher value of Pm profiles start increasing, achieve maximum value and then decrease gradually. But, in case of low Pm, there is a sharp decrease in skin-friction profiles. Also, the peak values shift toward the surface of the cone. In Fig. 9(b) we have shown the influence of magnetic parameter M and it is clear from Fig. 9(b) that M enhances the local skin-friction profiles. Also, the steady state is achieved later with the rise in M. The effect of semi-vertical angle of the cone on local skin-friction has been presented in Fig. 9(c). From Fig. 9(c), circadian rhythms can be seen that the effect of is to reduce the local skin-friction profiles. From Fig. 9, we observed that the local skin-friction increases with time. Fig. 10 depicts for local Nusselt number and we can notice the qualitatively similar results as that for Fig. 9 but the effect of time parameter on it has opposite behavior i.e. the time parameter reduces the maximum value of local Nusselt number. From the comparative study of Figs. 9 and 10, we can say that the time parameter is more influential on the local skin-friction.
Fig. 11 displays the average values of skin-friction for different value of and t. Fig. 11(a) represents graph of as a function of time. Here, we observed that there is retardation in average skin-friction profiles with increase in Pm but advancement with increase in M. Initially, these profiles start with minimum values and go on increasing with time, attain maximum and finally become steady. Fig. 11(b) shows sketches for average skin-friction profiles as a function of . It is revealed from the figure that average skin-friction profiles enhance with increase in magnetic parameter while magnetic Prandtl number has opposite effect. It can also be observed from the figure that the maximum value of is achieved when is and it slightly decreases with increase in . Fig. 12(a) illustrates graph of average Nusselt number as a function of time. From Fig. 12(a), it can be seen that the average Nusselt number profiles get enlarged with rise in M but Pm put adverse effect. Fig. 12(b) depicts average Nusselt number as a function of . It is revealed from Fig. 12(b) that average Nusselt number profiles increase with increase in Belinostat M but the rate of increase reduces when the values of Pm are simultaneously increased. Also, profiles decrease with increase in Pm. Initially these are at maximum magnitude and slowly go down decreasing with increase in .