Referring to the magnetic properties

Referring to the magnetic properties of the synthesized BaM ferrite nano powders, their magnetic hysteresis loops were shown in Fig. 7 and their corresponding parameters were listed in Table 2. As observed, all the synthesized BaM ferrite powders exhibited typical ferromagnetic magnetization behaviors with the well-defined magnetic hysteresis loops. The magnetization at 1.4 T, M1.4T, dramatically increased from 52.8emu/g to 57.9emu/g as the inputting ultrasonic power increased from zero to 9.5W, which may be ascribed to relatively easier saturation magnetization due to the elimination of multi-domain particles, the alleviation of particle adhesion and the evolution of particle shape from flake to quasi-sphere as well as the uniform particle size distribution as the ultrasonic assistance was employed [20]. The slight decrease of M1.4T as the inputting ultrasonic power increased mainly resulted from the coarsening in particle sizes. The maximum saturation magnetizations at 1.4T of the synthesized powders with the inputting ultrasonic power ranging from 9.5 to 28.5W were exceed to 57.5emu/g, which was near to the value of the intrinsic magnetic properties of the powders with single magnetic domain. Another magnetic parameter, the coercive force, Hc, approached to high values ranging from 5945 to 6395Oe according to the various inputting ultrasonic powers, which should be related to the shape evolution from flake to quasi-sphere of the single domain particles [20].

In conclusion, high quality single domain sphere-shaped pitavastatin cost barium hexa-ferrite nano powders with the particle size of 100–110nm have been successfully synthesized via an ultrasonic-assisted co-precipitation route. The influences of the ultrasonic technique on the particle sizes and size distributions, particle shapes and the magnetic properties of the synthesized barium hexa-ferrite nano powders have been discussed:

The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial supports from National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51103125, No. 51273172), Higher Education Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (No. 10KJB430018), the Project Funded by the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, and the Open Foundation of Key Laboratory of Environmental Materials and Engineering of Jiangsu Province.

Biodiesel, or so called fatty pitavastatin cost methyl ester (FAME), produced chemically from triglyceride with short-chain alcohol has received considerable attention in recent years as a green and alternative fuel [1–3]. However, current biodiesel technologies require developments. It is estimated that the cost of biodiesel is approximately 1.5–2 times higher than that of diesel fuel [4], which is mainly due to high feedstock cost (up to 75–80% of the total biodiesel cost) [5] and energy intensive process steps involved in their production [6].
Presently, edible oils such as soybean, sunflower, palm oil are the main resources for biodiesel production. However, the use of these sources to produce biodiesel is not feasible because there is a big gap in demand and supply of such oils as food and also they are far expensive to be used at present [7,8]. Low cost feedstock, such as non-edible oils, waste frying oils and animal fats could be used [8]. Soybean oil deodorizer distillate (SODD) is a byproduct in the refining of soybean oil. It contains free fatty acids (FFAs) (from 3wt.% to 50wt.%), triglycerides (45–55%), tocopherols (3–12%), sterols (7–8%), hydrocarbons and other unsaponifiables in trace amounts [3]. The actual composition of SODD depends on the source and process conditions employed for the refining process of the soybean oil. The high content of FFAs and triglycerides makes it a potential cheap feedstock for biodiesel production. However, there are few studies on biodiesel production using SODD as feedstock.
There are some recent reports referring to the use of waste cooking oils as material for biodiesel synthesis using two step transesterification processes. The lower rates of synthesis have been typically attributed to mass transfer limitations due to heterogeneous conditions existing during the reaction [9–11]. Thus, there is a need to develop sustainable process intensification technology for biodiesel processing from non-edible oil sources with an objective of reducing the cost of processing [5]. Among the available newer energy sources for process intensification, use of sound energy can result in significant degree of process intensification by way of generating cavitational events in the reactor [5,12]. Use of cavitational reactors can favor the reaction chemistry and propagation by way of enhanced mass transfer and interphase mixing between the phases and also can lower the requirement of the severity of the operating conditions in terms of temperature and pressure [13,14].